|UPDATED: February 7, 2023 CONTACT|
M A I N S
|M46 Transmission||Rear End Info|
|T5 Installation||Speedo Cable
|Trans Mount and Crossmember
||Tremec TK Series
This page is new for 2023. This page will hold a bunch of research I've collected over the years on T5 transmission swaps into 240 and stuff related to that.
I'll continue to add things here as I can. If you can help with this, please email.
FIRST CAME THE
Installation of an M46 Transmission
My 1984 240 originally came with an AW71 automatic transmission, like most 240s imported to the USA.
If two pedals are good, three are definitely better!
I have always preferred a manual transmission in any car I have owned for driving pleasure, but a nice 240 Turbo with a manual transmission was not easy to find.
Eventually my original auto transmission totally failed more than 100 miles from home during a road-trip to the annual Davis Volvo Show in Calif.
I called for a flatbed tow (having a premier AAA account was a great decision) and the car was sent back home while I hitched a ride in friend's Volvo who was also on his way to Davis.
This is an M46 4-speed plus overdrive transmission. I pulled this transmission from a wrecked 1983 242 Turbo.
The old M46 wire harness that came with the M46 was is very poor condition, so I had to make a new one. I saved the info and later made some diagrams for others if needed.
Those diagrams can be seen in my 240 Mods and Fixes Page: https://www.240turbo.com/volvo240mods.html#m46harness
That 1983 M46 came with a Type J OD, which had a cable speedometer output. Research has suggested later M46 transmissions (with P Type OD) will not have a cable output. Volvo stopped using speedometer cables after 1985.
The M46 was still used in 240 models through 1986 (or possibly some 1987 models). In 1987 the 240s with manual transmission began receiving new M47 5-speed. The M47 may not not come with a speedometer cable output either, although the "Grupp 38 Instrument" table below suggests that there may have been some M47s that did come with speedometer cable outputs. I'm not aware of them actually existing though.
The 740 Turbo (and 740 16 valve) models with manual transmissions would continue to get the M46 through 1990, because it was stronger than the M47. The M46 then became obsolete after 1990 and was permanently discontinued.
Here's a table below showing gear ratios for a number of different Volvo manual transmissions.
Here's a table below showing the different TOOTH COUNTS and COLORS of 240 speedometer cable gears.
This table was originally in Swedish. I have added some English translations below.
This table above came from Greenbook TP30176 240 Specifications.
REAR END INFO
Considering my 1984 240 Turbo originally had an automatic transmission, the rear end ratio for MY CAR was 3.91:1.
A manual transmission 1984 240 would have received a different rear end ratio of 3.73:1.
A lot more 240 rear end stuff can be found in my REAR END PAGE.
YOUR 240 Trans/Rear End Combo May Vary
Rear end ratios were NOT consistent for the 240 over the years. There were a LOT of combinations.
I have begun compiling information I could find in Volvo documentation. You should understand and consider your particular rear end ratio when planning for any transmission swap.
T5 MANUAL TRANSMISSION UPGRADE
Fearing the M46 would eventually break from too much torque or abuse, I decided to install a Ford Motorsport World Class T5Z 5-speed transmission.
I bought this transmission brand new from Summit Racing in 2004 (about $1300 back then). It's pretty much the same as this one from Summit Racing: https://www.summitracing.com/parts/rem-1352-000-251.
The Ford T5 transmission was originally used for 1979 to 1993 Ford Mustangs. It was originally manufactured by Borg Warner. In 1997 Tremec bought Borg Warner's transmission division, so transmissions made after 1997 were marked "TREMEC." The input shaft on the Ford V8 model has 10 splines (1.0625" diameter). The output shaft has 28 splines. The rear T5 slip yoke uses a 1330 series U-joint, which measures 3.625 inches wide. These U-joint bearing caps are 1.0625 inch diameter.
The T5 has a 7 tooth cable speedometer drive gear output. I adapted a modified Volvo speedo cable SEEN HERE.
*My new T5 originally came with the 0.63 ratio 5th gear. I was ultimately not happy with this ratio.
Cruising in 5th gear with my low compression B21FT felt like my car was lugging at highway speeds, especially below 3000 rpm. There were some other 5th gear ratios available for this transmission over the years. One of them was 0.73:1. I was able to locate a brand new 5th gear set that would convert my 0.63 5th gear to 0.73, which I then had installed by a transmission shop.
I should explain that a 5th gear set for a T5 transmission is made up of two matched gears. One is a countershaft gear and one is a main shaft gear. And for the overdrive ratio to be correctly calculated, certain 5th gear sets must be chosen according to the existing FIRST gear ratio. The T5 came with a 1st gear of either 2.95:1 or 3.35:1. Mine came with 2.95:1.
The original 0.63 5th gear that came in my transmission meant the matched gears it came with was a 51 tooth countershaft gear and a 25 tooth main shaft gear. To convert my T5 to 0.73:1, I needed a set consisting of a 55 tooth countershaft gear and a 31 tooth main shaft gear. The table below will help you understand how these combinations work and how different 5th gear sets will turn out depending on which 1st gear ratio is already installed.
It should be noted that T5 transmissions were made for both Ford cars and GM cars. T5 transmissions from both makes had different optional 5th gear ratios. All FORD World Class (WC) T5s came with a 28 spline output shaft, while all GM WC T5 transmissions had a 27 spline output shaft. This difference is important to note, because the main shaft gear used in a 5th gear set must have the same spline count as the output shaft. So a main shaft gear for a GM transmission will NOT fit in a Ford transmission.
While new (and used) T5 transmissions are still available, some transmission parts that were easy to find years ago have begun to vanish or become hard to find. Finding sources for 5th overdrive gear sets, such as those listed above, can be hard. I have now begun listing part numbers as I can find them. If you can help with this, please let me know.
After installation, I found the new 0.73 overdrive to be a much better ratio for a small Volvo engine with low compression like my B21FT (7.5:1 static compression ratio).
SPEEDOMETER CABLE ADAPTATION
I chose to keep the old school speedometer cable my car came with, however most 240's out there nowadays (1986 and later) will have an electric speedometer, which of course requires a Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) in the rear end.
The T5 conveniently had a mechanical speedometer cable output port shown above.
I found a Ford T5 speedo cable in a salvage yard and cut off the transmission end shown above. Then I removed the end from a Volvo 240 cable. The ends are simply pushed or crimped onto the plastic sheath, so removing them was not hard. Then I grafted the Volvo cable sheath to the Ford end, making certain the square inner drive cable came through far enough to engage that red plastic gear. This has worked perfectly for many years. If the red gear is the same as the below image, then it should have 21 teeth and seems to work well with my car.
A variety of different speedometer gears can be found for the Ford T5 transmission, including 16 through 23 teeth. Above image is from: https://shiftsst.com/blog/post/speedo-gears-101.html.
RESOURCES FOR FITTING A T5 TRANSMISSION IN A 240
If you're looking for more info on fitting a T5 transmission into a 240 or other Volvo, here are some good places to start looking:
Aaron Reed Baker's T5 installation page: http://www.aaronreedbaker.com/t5swap.html
Smoothdurban's thread beginning on page 2 (post #91): http://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=292243&page=2
1800philes.com T5 installation 2007
A few parts that you may need to collect.
Clutch Pilot Bearing: Standard Ford Mustang 5.0 type. Ford Performance Parts M-7600-A, Dorman 14677. I.D.: 0.672 inch. O.D.: 1.378 inch.
|Transmission Mount and Crossmember
The crossmember and transmission mount may not seem like it needs a lot of thought or planning, but after my experiences, I disagree.
Back in 2004 when the T5 installation was first being developed in a 240, pretty much every installation ended up with a very simple modification to the stock 240 crossmember ABOVE.
This was 1/4 inch steel plate that was welded to the bottom of the crossmember. So I did this also.
A standard Ford T5 mount for a Mustang could be used mounted in a VERTICAL position, or an aftermarket polyurethane Mustang mount (which I used for a while).
I prefer either stock or slightly stiffer diesel engine mounts in a 240. I have tried stiffer or more solid mounts before and there was always too much vibration.
I later found that if you use the above style T5 mount while using factory or OEM style engine mounts, including diesel mounts, there is a potential serious problem.
HERE'S THE PROBLEM I LATER DISCOVERED.
This T5 mount type above is probably ok if you're using solid or semi-solid or very stiff ENGINE mounts, or any mounts which cannot not deform or sag if pushed the wrong direction.
When I was using the above mount, I eventually discovered that my engine had SHIFTED REARWARD far enough that the back of the cylinder head was firmly against the firewall.
I then checked the T5 mount (PHOTO ABOVE) and I discovered that it had been forcibly deformed, allowing the transmission to move toward the rear.
I was using OEM style engine mounts like pictured ABOVE. So I checked my engine mounts and discovered they were sagging toward the rear similar to the above "DEFORMED" photo.
MY CHANGES TO SOLVE THIS PROBLEM.
Maybe I just like punishing myself.
Before anyone was making custom crossmembers or mounts, I approached a couple certain Volvo parts fabricators in hopes that a better design might be created. I specifically wanted to change to something like the below sketches I made. I got nowhere. The advice I got was to simply install stiffer engine mounts and live with excessive vibration.
I shared the above sketches on Turbobricks. The transmission mount above is at an angle, pretty much exactly the same as a factory Volvo manual transmission mount. My measurements found there was enough room to use a few smaller different style mounts, depending on where the best position for the crossmember ended up (there are only a few existing bolt-in positions for that). Using a Ford T5 mount for this is pushing it, since it's SO TALL, but using these ideas above, a Volvo M46 rubber mount or something similar could certainly fit in there.
Here are the mounts ABOVE I wanted to consider for this. The standard M46 mount is an easy choice, but I thought it would be good to have more than one choice to see what fits best for a good transmission height.
The left engine mount ABOVE is very close in size to an M46 mount, except the studs are offset on the engine mount. If a taller mount is needed, the RIGHT engine mount might have been the choice to consider.
A Turbobricks member then began offering a new crossmember design using steel box tubing. His design normally offered the typical vertical T5 mount configuration that became a problem for me. I discussed my ideas with him (using the above sketches) and he agreed to modify a custom mount for me, which would hold an ANGLED transmission mount that I needed. He made a strong effort using a 240 he had access to with a T5 installed, but he made an error. Instead of fitting a more compact M46 style mount, he made the mistake of fitting a LARGE Ford T5 mount, without considering first how low to the ground his design was going to end up. This resulted in part of the crossmember being pretty much too low for a lowered 240.
I'm open to try things, so I did try it. I lived with the annoying scraps on speed bumps and driveways, but eventually it resulted in SEVERE CARNAGE SHOWN ABOVE.
REPAIRING THE CARNAGE
First things first. Before dropping the trans crossmember for a project like this, take some simple measures to make sure the engine doesn't migrate rearward and distort the engine mounts.
I got under my car and stared at this piece above for a while. I considered making a change in this piece. I even tried a few alternate designs using cardboard, but in the end I stayed with this piece and made some mods to it for a smaller Volvo rubber mount from the below choices.
This photo again: I had these three mounts on hand and I tried them all to see which one seemed to fit best with the transmission height I liked.
For the record, I basically mounted the transmission as high in the tunnel as I could get it, while still clearing the floor. There is very little space in there, but everything clears ok.
In the end I used the larger RIGHT ENGINE MOUNT above.
When I was happy with things, I gave the repaired and modified mount a fresh coat of paint.
Here's the final result. That's a 240 right engine mount now in use as a trans mount.
|Stronger Tremec 5-Speed Transmission Option
T5 versus TKX
PHOTO: T5 versus TKX Dimensions (FORD versions)
The T5 transmission is not as strong as a Tremec TK series. The WC T5 I chose had an advertised torque rating of about 300-330 ft. lbs. These limits have been acceptable for most 4 cylinder Volvos. Over the years, some makers of Volvo transmission adapters (such an BNE) have begun offering versions to use a stronger Tremec TK series 5 speed, just in case the normal T5 isn't durable enough. In 2021 Tremec introduced an all new TKX 5 speed transmission, which is now the replacement for the obsolete TKO 5-speed, which had been around for many years. Of course these much stronger transmissions are more expensive than a T5.
The new TKX 5 speed transmission is a completely new design and it looks nothing like the T5 or the old TKO, but it shares the same overall length and uses the same bell housing mounting dimensions as the TKO. So it can be used for our Volvos with an available adapter. The major differences in the TKX include a slimmer design (for easier fit in tight transmission tunnels), more options for gear ratios, more options for shifter placement, a torque rating of 600 ft. lbs., a higher 8000 rpm limit with shifting available to 7500 rpm, and it has both electric and cable speedo outputs. It's advertised as having the same superior shifting characteristics as the T56 6-speed.
The cross member mounting points on a TKX are in a slightly different position; about 0.8 inch higher and about 1.2 inch further back. The TKX transmission weighs about 23 lbs. heavier than a T5 (about 98 lbs. versus 75 lbs.).
Input Shaft: If you were to swap from a T5 to a TKX or if you're doing a first-time conversion to a 240, but want to use a TKX instead of a T5, there are a few things to keep in mind.
The Ford T5 used most in the T5 swap will generally have a 10 spine input shaft (1.0625 inch diameter). It appears a 10 spline input shaft version of the TKX is available, same 1.0625 inch diameter, but checking on-line I found it listed out of stock or special order only, so there may be a wait. And from what I've read, the 26 spine input shaft versions should be stronger, since more splines is generally considered stronger, plus the 26 spine shaft is larger (1.125 inch diameter). You can use this info in case going with a 26 spline input shaft is an option for you. A 26 spline version will require a different clutch disk. I'm not sure if the same clutch pilot bearing would e used..
Output Shaft: The Ford T5 came with a 28 spline output shaft. A T5 slip yoke uses a 1330 series U-joint. The TKX has a 31 spline output shaft. So a different slip yoke is needed. A 1330 series U-joint slip yoke is available for the TKX. A 1330 series U-joint measures 3.625 inches wide. The bearing caps are 1.0625 inch diameter.
TREMEC TKX GEAR RATIO OPTIONS
A Guide To Tremec Manual Transmissions
The T5 transmission can be installed in a 240 with a one-piece or two-piece driveshaft. For this installation I chose a two-piece. It's the bottom one in this photo. This required a driveline shop to custom build the front half, which was mated to an unmodified rear half. The top driveshaft shown above is a stock 1984 240 driveshaft for an automatic transmission.
The slip yoke on the new driveshaft above is a standard T5 type, which uses a 1330 series U-joint. The normal Volvo front U-joint is a 1310 series, so the driveshaft shop installed a combination U-joint 1310 to 1330.
This is a very good video on PINION or U-JOINT ANGLES. Watch it! It explains things better than I ever could.
These photos above are of a custom ONE-PIECE driveshaft made for a 240 with a Ford T5 transmission.
When measuring the length that you'll need, you must measure at a similar point of each end. The center of the universal joint is a good place to measure.
This driveshaft measures about 46.25 inches long.
The final driveshaft length doesn't need to be ultra-precise. If you're working on measurements, you can approximate where the above slip yoke needs to be in the transmission. With the car on the ground and ride height, it should end up about half way between the two images above.
A Hurst performance short-throw shifter was added when I installed the T5. The Hurst chromed shifter stick is detailed below.
My setup began with the original cable style clutch and pedal, but I later changed that to a hydraulic clutch setup after stretching and breaking a couple clutch cables.
More info about hydraulic clutch setups can be found in my Hydraulic Clutch Page.
The knob position was originally a little tall for my comfort, so I cut off about an inch off of the bottom.
The holes I'm using are shown in this photo of the modified shifter. I'm using the BOTTOM hole (which was originally the top hole) and the third hole from the bottom, which I drilled. The other holes are not being used. The final shifter position is now perfect in my opinion. It's comfortable and and easy to reach any gear without any strain.
This is a rubber bushing from Hurst. PN 1140015. It helps the flat shifter handle fit nicely in the round hole of the Volvo rubber shift boot.
|Other Car Brand
||Center Cap Labels/Overlays
||240 Black Door Vinyl
||240 Power Mirrors - Switches
||240 Oil Cooler Page
||240 Fuse Panel Page
Racing 242 Turbo Page
||240 Hydraulic Clutch||Fuel Pump RELAY Page
||240 Headlight RELAY Page
|Used Parts & Extra Stuff for sale
||240 Ignition Page
||240 Headlight Page
|240 Gauge Electrical Diagrams||240 REAR END Page||Yoshifab Catch Can Install||240 MODS and FIXES Page|
||Gentex Mirror Upgrade||Yoshifab Drain Tube Install||Modified 240 Favorites|
|SoCal Salvage Yards||Unleaded Racing Fuel||B26FT Stroker||Dave's 245 Spec Page|
|240 SUSPENSION Page||240 Lowering Page
||240 Windshield Page
||240 WIPER Page|
||240 Dash Top Gauge Pod||Cadillac 4-Note Horn Install||240 DYNAMAT Installation|
|4 Speed Fan
||Electric Cooling Fan
||240 AC Page|
|240 VIN Page||Stepper Idle Valve Page
||Vacuum Diagrams||Volvo Meet Photo Albums|
|240 Exhaust Page||242 Power Vent Window Project||
EFI Electrical Pin Function Diagrams
||"KOMFORT BLINKER" Upgrade||T5 Trans Conversion Page|
|Mojave Road Trail Map Page||
|Ordering Instructions||Policies||PAYMENTS Page
||Texas Volvo Meets and Events|
|Returns||Shipping||Shopping Cart Troubleshooting||Contact Us