2 4 0 T U R B O . C O M
D A V E ' S   V O L V O   P A G E
The 240 FIX PAGE
Some cool FIXES and MODS to keep you sane and properly entertained.
      UPDATED: May 21, 2024       CONTACT    
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N  A  V  I  G  A  T  E     T  H  I  S     P  A  G  E
Below index is alphabetical.
242 C-Pillar Project
242 Rear POWERED Vent Window AW71 Overdrive Electrical
Air Filter Calculation

ALIGNMENT, 240 Front Toe
Anti-Corrosive Zinc Paste B230 Crank Bolt & Timing Gear Issues
Blinker 3-Flash Komfort BLINKER Upgrade
BANJO Versus BONDED WASHERS BRUSHLESS Cooling Fans Brushless Fan Controller (Widget Man)
BULB Failure Sensor PART 1
BULB Failure Sensor PART 2
BULB Failure Sensor PART 3
Creating CURVED Rubber Hoses
COOLING Fan 4-Speed Controller COOLING Fan, Electric Page COOLING Fan PWM Controller
Terminal CRIMPING Page Crank Bolt LOCK WASHER B230
CUP Holder Projects
DASH Grounds
DASHES for 240, Crack Repair DOME Light, LED Upgrade
DOOR Top Vinyl Trim DOOR Panel Removal, Fixing DOOR Lock Wires
DRIVING Light Brackets EMISSIONS - Smog ELECTRIC, Underhood Grounds
Fan-Belt Sizes ELECTRIC Power Steering
Electric FANS - BRUSHLESS Page Engine Mounts
Engine - Piston - Head Cleaning DIY
FOG Light, Driving Light Wiring
FUEL FILTER Banjo Fitting
Fuel Injector Diagnostics
Plastic FUEL LINE Repair FUEL PUMP In-Tank Upgrade
FUEL PUMP Relay Page FUSE PANEL Page G80 Diff in your 240
GAUGE CLUSTER Mods GAUGES, Electrical GAUGES, Lighting
GAUGE Dash Top Pod GAUGE 240 Small Tach GAUGE Speedo Recalibration
GROUNDS in a 240
HOOD Insulation
HEADLIGHT Relay Harness HEADLIGHT Relay Page
HEADLIGHT Step Relay Elimination
HORNS, Loud Cadillac 4-Note
IDLE Valve Project Page INTERIOR Refresh 240
INSURANCE, Classic Car Policy LH-2.4 Aftermarket Temp Sensor WARNING

M46 / M47 Shift Knob Fix MSD Ignition for your 240
MECHMAN Alternator Info
MIRRORS - Power - and Switches MIRROR Gentex - Upgrade
M46 Overdrive Electrical Overdrive Auto Trans Electrical OFFSET, Wheels
Power Steering Pump Tensioner POWER Steering, Electric Assist
POWER Steering Rack Identification
RUBBER Hoses, Creating Custom
SPACERS, Rear Wheels
SPARK Plug Cables (DIY Build) STEERING Hub Fix - Momo Steering Rack Identification
STRUT MOUNT Install (BNE) SMOG Emissions
TAIL LAMPS, Painting Lenses Temp Sensor (aftermarket) WARNING LH-2.4 TIMING BELT
Timing Gear Failure B230

TURBO Oil Drain Page
TURN SIGNAL Blinker Upgrade Under-Hood Grounds URO Temp Sensor Issue
V-Belt Sizes Vent Window 242 POWERED VINYL Trim on 240 Doors
WASHERS (Banjo Type)
WHEEL Adapters
WHEEL Clearance
Wheel Offset Widget Man Brushless Fan Controller

VIN Page
Window Switches - 240
WIPER Page ZINC Anti-Corrosive Paste

I like 240s a lot and there's nothing I like better than modifying them for performance, handling, comfort, etc. 
In this page I have outlined some cool mods I have done to my 240s and others that have been provided by other 240 enthusiasts.
Your comments are welcome:

Solutions for SECURING your
If you're performance-built B230 is important to you, you need to keep these modifications in mind. These mods outlined below will not make it faster, but they may save your engine from serious damage.
This first suggestion is designed to prevent the epidemic of crank pulley bolts coming loose when they should not.  If you're paranoid about that bolt coming loose, I think THIS WILL BRING SOME CALM.
This is a B230 Lock Tab Plate. It's designed to be installed under the B230 crank bolt head.

Volvo B230 crank bolt tab lock washer
I designed this Lock Tab Plate to illustrate a way prevent unwanted loosening of that bolt.
(March 2024) Lock Tab Plates are now available below.
Volvo B230 crank bolt tab lock washer. Volvo B230 crank bolt tab lock washer.
I wanted some of these tab locks for myself, so I had a small batch made in 22 gauge stainless steel. If you're interested, I had some extras made which are available.
The weight of one of these is about 5 grams, so if you're concerned about imbalance, the long arm weighs about a gram, which is pretty insignificant.
If you're the one who obsesses over a gram, you can install two of these 180 degrees apart. 
Order Quantity:
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Your comments are welcome: CONTACT
NEXT: Failure of stock B230 crank timing gear. Usually due to crank bolt loosening.

The standard crank timing sprocket for a B230 is made using an inexpensive cast or powdered metal manufacturing process, so they're fragile. The small locating nub shown above rests in the crankshaft groove when installed. This nub is a weak point and it's prone to shearing off. If that happens, that will create all sorts of havoc. In many cases, this failure was preceded by (probably caused by) the loosening of the CRANK DAMPER BOLT. So this is a problem which might be fixed by just KEEPING YOUR BOLT FROM LOOSENING. 
It's also believed by some that the nub can become damaged from abuse when fitting or removing it, in part from the use of an IMPACT WRENCH, or if you are not using a proper DAMPER HOLDING TOOL (below) to keep the the damper stable when removing or torquing the crank bolt.

If you're wondering why this sprocket has another raised nub shown above, it's made that way so the sprocket mates with the slot on the back of the crank damper.


This is the Billet Steel crank sprocket (round tooth) available from Yoshifab. It comes with a locating key. A billet sprocket is considerably stronger than a stock one, but it can still experience some damage or it can cause engine damage if your crank bolt comes loose. I know of one instance where this happened to a billet sprocket and the main damage happened to the key only, but the sprocket was still usable.  The valves in the head, however, were toast. So a billet crank sprocket is a nice addition that adds a higher level of protection for your expensive engine, especially if you have a 16 valve head, because the crank gear is under more stress with an extra cam sprocket up top.

This is an OPTION. It's not required,
but it's a well known solution for a performance engine which will add to the security of the damper pulley and timing sprocket.
Doing this with a STOCK TIMING SPROCKET would probably be just fine too if you don't have a billet steel one.
It's not as difficult as it sounds and this procedure can be done using pretty normal tools. These images below are useful screen-shots from the below video so you can see a few close-ups of what's being done.

No one sells a crank pin kit for a Volvo engine (like they do for many other engines). The below video is showing how this is done using what you can find easily. Steel dowel pins can be found in many sizes and lengths. You might try 1/4 inch x 1 inch long (25.4 mm) or 1.25 inch long (31.75 mm). You can always grind a pin down to make it shorter if you have a bench grinder or a rotary cutter. In this video he began with a 1/4 inch pin size, but later changed to 5/16 inch pin. No reason was given. 1/4 inch is just fine. The holes are drilled 35 mm apart on center in the fat washer as shown in the very below image. This is because the nose of the crankshaft is 35 mm in diameter.
The Volvo damper pulley is 17 mm thick,
so the pin needs to be longer than 17 mm (0.67 inch) so that it goes into the sprocket. Using a 1 inch long pin means at least 6.4 mm of the pin will be in the sprocket. Using a 1.25 inch pin means at least 14.75 mm will be in the sprocket. This video doesn't say how long the pins he used were, but it looks like they ended up to be somewhere between 1 to 1.25 inch long after he ground them down to be flush with the damper pulley so they would be behind the fat crank washer. The drill size used will be the same size as the pin. 
In case you need info on the large crank bolt, it's threaded M14 x 2, 70 mm in length, with a 24 mm bolt head. It's PN 963319 available from iPd. The large, fat washer is PN 1336822, also available from iPd.  Bolt torque specification: 1st Stage: 45 ft.lbs. (60 Nm). Second Stage: Tighten 60 Degrees.


This crank pinning operation adds another nice level of security, but still, it doesn't stop a crank bolt from coming loose.  So I definitely recommend also doing the FIRST recommendation above. 
Your comments are welcome:

Choosing an Appropriate Air Filter

If you're adding a modified air filter, it would be good to know if the filter you're choosing is large enough to suck in enough air for your engine. Most air filter companies don't tell you what CFM their filters are capable of, so here's how you can find out. First you can determine how much airflow your engine needs.  Here's an online calculator.
For example, if you enter a 2.3 liter engine with 300 HP revving to 6000 RPM, you find your engine uses up to 367 CFM.
Then you can go shopping for an air filter and you can use this info below:
Pleated K&N filter material will flow 6.03 cfm of air per square inch. By comparison, a single square inch of the highest flowing paper will allow 4.95 cfm of air to pass and the freest flowing foam will flow 4.38 cfm. Use the formula below to compute the minimum size filter required for your particular application. The usable portion of the filter is called the EFFECTIVE FILTERING AREA which is determined by multiplying the diameter of the filter times Pi (3.1416) times the height of the air filter in inches, then subtracting .75-inch. We subtract .75-inch to compensate for the rubber seals on each end of the element and the filter material near them since very little air flows through this area.
SOURCE: www.quadratec.com/air-filter-facts

So if we look at this K&N filter above (PN RU-5174), we can use an average diameter of about 5.5 inches and a usable filter length of about 4.25 inches. This comes to about 74 cubic inches.  Multiply this by 6.03 CFM and you get 440 CFM. This filter will probably be just enough. If you're not comfortable with the CFM limit being that close, keep shopping for a larger filter.
For example, if we looked at this K&N RE-930 above, it offers 87 cubic inches and up to 524 CFM. Or this K&N RE-810 above offers 137 cubic inches and up to 830 CFM.

Engine mounts are kind of important. I think there should be more discussion about better options, don't YOU?
I made a new page showing some of my ideas about better options for high-performance engine mounts.


I get this kind of question often, so I'm putting together some info here on diagnosing your EFI fuel injector c ircuits.
For this example I'll be referring to LH 2.4 circuits, but this same info generally applies to LH 2.2.

Go to my Harness page where I have my collection of EFI Pin Function Diagrams: prancingmoose.com/volvoharnesses#pinfunctions
For this example I'll be opening the PDF called: 1989-93 240 B230F LH 2.4.

1.    Looking at page 2, see the Bk-R wire from the fuel relay? Try testing it to make sure it shows power when cranking the engine.  If it has power, keep going.
2.    That same Bk-R wire also powers the injectors. Can you see that in the diagram? Check for that wire in an injector plug so you know which terminal it is. Check it for power when cranking. If it has power keep going. This means you have power to your injectors.  You're halfway there.
3.    You’ll need an injector noid tool or LED test light to check if you’re getting an ECU signal to the injector plug. This comes through the Gn-W wire from ECU terminal 18 to your injector plug.
This video explains that:
A noid tool can be found by searching “bosch Jetronic EV1 noid tool”. It’s an LED that can be plugged into the injector plug (EV1 style plug).  If it flashes when cranking the engine you know the ECU is sending the signal.
That video also gives you an option to use a test light.  It should be an LED test light, since a normal incandescent bulb light can risk damage to the ECU. The guy in the video is using a normal test light.  It's not recommended, but in an emergency you do what you can.

L H-2.4 TEMPERATURE SENSOR (aftermarket)
This is the Fuel I
njection Temp Sensor for LH 2.4 or 3.1, Volvo PN 1346030. Bosch PN 0280130032.  THREADS: M12-1.5.  This is the Engine Coolant Temp (ECT) sensor that any Volvo LH 2.4 or 3.1 or Regina equipped car will use. Other car interchange info for this sensor: https://www.autohausaz.com/pn/UR-1346030

<<< The Bosch part number 0 280 130 032 can be seen engraved on an ORIGINAL BOSCH sensor. An AFTERMARKET (or no name) sensor might not have a manufacturer name or part number engraved on it.
Be aware that some aftermarket LH 2.4 temp sensors  have proven to be defective. I have no idea if this is a wide problem or not. I put this info together after a customer of mine mentioned he got THREE defective sensors in a row from two different new parts sellers.
URO PN 1346030 or URO PN 001251 and some other no-name brands, such as one from Rock Auto with PN 3C M/19G (photos below).

HOW TO TEST THIS SENSOR: Check the resistance level between a sensor pin and GROUND.
If you have an aftermarket sensor for LH 2.4 and find NO RESISTANCE READINGS between a connector pin and sensor body (ground), the sensor will not operate properly. Testing this way should reveal resistance readings (details below).
The typical problems you'll see if you're using a bad sensor can include poor cold starts and poor MPG.
IMPORTANT: Do not test an LH 2.4 sensor by checking resistance between the two pins. That is NOT how this sensor is tested. Many people have made this error.

If you encounter one of these new defective sensor s, or if you have any comments to offer, please feel free to email me. CONTACT

BELOW PHOTOS: The Uro branded one is on the left.  The Rock Auto sensor is on the right.  Both of these were found to be BAD. Weird, huh?.
<<< HOW THIS SENSOR WORKS:  An LH 2.4 temp sensor has two pins. Each pin uses internal resistance to vary the ohm output between a pin and ground. There are TWO resistors, both identical. Each resistor is connected to pin. Each resistor is also connected to the sensor body (GROUND). So then each pin provides a separate resistance output. One output goes to the Fuel Injection ECU and one goes to the Ignition ICU. Both pins will have identical ohm output in relation to resistance between the pin and sensor ground.
<<< Image to left is from TP32053 LH 2.4, 3.1, EZ 116K Fault Tracing, page 27.
If you're curious about appropriate resistance test measurements for this sensor, here it is.
Resistance readings should be taken between PIN 1 and Sensor Body or Pin 2 and sensor body (or to GROUND) for LH 2.4 sensors (this is a different method than for LH 2.2 sensors: SOURCE: TB Post #6). Do not test an LH 2.4 sensor by testing resistance between the two pins. 
Temp              -    Resistance
-10 C (14 F)    -   8260-10560 Ohms (8.26-10.56 kOhms)
+20 C (68 F)   -   2280-2720 Ohms (2.28-2.72 kOhms)
+80 C (176 F) -   290-364 Ohms (0.290-0.364 kOhms)
This sensor can only be tested by checking resistance between a pin and ground, not between the two pins.

New page dedicated to BRUSHLESS cooling fans

DIY CURVED Rubber Hoses
To use for i dle hoses, power steering returns, coolant, etc.

If you have a 240 (or other car) with curved or molded rubber hoses under the hood and you cannot find replacements, here's a DIY method for molding rubber hoses to your own custom shape.

240 Power Steering Pump Belt Tensioner
Curing a common BROKEN BOLT Issue.
This broken bolt happened to me on my 240. This is the belt tensioner adjuster on my 240 power steering pump.
That bolt above is not supposed to be broken. The thread is M6-1.0, about 80 mm long. This bolt has a 10 mm head.
After it broke I thought I was pretty smart, so I ordered a new bolt with higher tensile strength. Then it broke again. I was accused by clown trolls of not properly tightening the locking nut. Yes it WAS tight. I've been working on 240s a while. 240s can vibrate things loose. No matter. This is getting FIXED!

The problem in my opinion is not the locking nut being tight or not tight. This skinny, weak-ass long M6 bolt above has no business being in that place. The bigger M8 bolt is a lot stronger.
So I began looking for a solution which would have a larger, stronger bolt.


I bought this adjuster block above made for a Mitsubishi (2000-2005 Eclipse or 1999-2003 Galant). It uses a larger M8-1.25 bolt. The bolt head is 12 mm.
This can usually be found on-line new or used by searching: "Mitsubishi alternator tensioning bolt."

    Here are a couple views of the new Mitsubishi tensioner installed in my 240, compared to the broken one. You'll need to drill out the top hole of the new bracket for the fatter bolt.
You can see in the above right image that the new threaded block will probably reduce clearance a little at the back of the pulley. This wasn't really a problem for me, but just something to check when you're assembling it. You can always grind that bolt end if clearance it too tight.
Option #2: Here's a DORMAN ALTERNATIVE

Dorman PN 197-148 is shown above. I found it was less expensive than the Mitsubishi part. It fits the same size bolts.
(Below image comparison): The Dorman threaded block has slightly different dimensions, so keep that in mind if clearance becomes tight.

242 Powered Rear Vent Window Project
in 2022 I completed the installation of power vent window actuators for my 242 rear vent windows. I had been thinking of ways to do this for many years.  You can see that project at:

Also 242 C-Pillar Project Page
In addition to the above vent window project, I also made new C-pillar panels, because the old ones were not useable. 
That page can be found at:

Aligning your TIMING BELT Correctly
Installing a new timing belt on your B21, B23 or B230 is not an ultra-challenging task, but if you're not experienced, it's good to have some useful reference info to keep from making mistakes.
The last thing you need is WRONG INFO (image shown below), which I have seen in MANY technical manuals and in many online images.
The LEFT image below is WRONG!
So if you see it wrong like that in a manual or on-line page, don't use it!

Here are some more images below you might find useful.
B21 or B23
NOTE: If you need the size of the big crankshaft bolt, it's M14-2.0 x 90 mm long, grade 10.9. It has a 22 mm bolt head. Volvo PN 970933.


In case you need info on the large crank bolt for a B230, it's threaded M14 x 2, 70 mm in length, with a 24 mm bolt head. It's Volvo PN 963319 available from iPd. The large, fat crank washer is PN 1336822, also available from iPd. And if you need a good video on replacing your timing belt, iPd made one.

This video is specific to the later 240 with B230F.

Old School vs. New School.

If you have owned a Volvo that uses BANJO FITTINGS and copper washers, you might have shared my frustration with making them seal well after working on the connections.  The factory copper washers, often called crush washers, where made to be "soft" and were designed to be used one time only. 

 Volvo used these copper washers on oil lines, power steering racks, on fuel systems and of course on the OIL PAN drain plug.
Being a cheap 240 owner, I would often try re-using these copper washers. Sometimes this resulted in leakage.  Sometimes flat-sanding a copper washer would renew the surface, but even a brand new copper washer can leak. This often results in the temptation to OVER-TIGHTEN a fitting or a drain plug, which of course can have a really bad result.
Over the years I have also tried aluminum crush washers. This seemed to work about the same. Maybe better, sometimes. 

  Replace the copper washer every time?
Do YOU put a brand new washer on when YOU change your oil???  I didn't.
  I can't count the number of times I've heard about someone over-tightening that drain plug, resulting in stripped threads and a ruined oil pan. 


 Then a few years ago I discovered METAL-BONDED SEALING WASHERS. Bonded seal washers have a two-part construction consisting of a structural metal ring and an interference fit rubber seal. When compressed, they create an ultra-tight high-pressure seal. These are commonly installed in high-pressure hydraulic applications with thousands of PSI and they can certainly be used in static sealing locations, such as drain plugs.
For those of you who don't want to use "rubber" on your high-pressure oil or fuel hose seals, these can easily be found with Nitrile rubber, also known as NBR or Buna-N, which is impervious to oil or fuel. Here are some sources below.

I bought this METRIC assortment below of metal-bonded sealing washers: amazon.com/gp/product/B07CKVYWD4/

I now use these bonded seal washers on my OIL DRAIN PLUG and on my OIL COOLER FITTINGS
The drain plug thread is 3/4-16 and a 20 mm bonded washer fits well. 
Perfect seal every time and no need to over-tighten, ever.

Mike P. from Canada sent me some photos. He changed his fuel filter and had trouble. Trying to get a seal with normal copper washers, he over-tightened it and warped the washer, causing fuel to spray 4 to 5 feet!  He then installed metal-bonded seal washers.  After tightening snug by hand, he turned the banjo bolt 1/4 turn and got a perfect seal. The Volvo filter used two sizes: 14 mm on the INLET and 12 mm on the OUTLET.

240 Window Switch Info
If you need some diagram info for a 240 window switch, see the images below.
242 diagram and 244 diagram.

DIY Engine PISTON and HEAD Cleaning Tips
I had to sh are this video I found. If you're cleaning an old engine, head, or pistons yourself, here's a great video.

Here's my page with a bunch of alternator info you can look through: https://www.240turbo.com/alternators.html
Includes my MECHMAN high-performance alternator installation.

240 Hood Insulation
Maybe you don't care about 240 hood insulation, but if you do, I've begun compiling some info here just for you.
Most 240s did not have any hood insulation.
To my knowledge, the first 200 series with factory hood insulation pads were the 260 series (264 and 262C) and also diesel equipped 240s. The first 240 non-diesel to come with the insulation pad was the 240 Turbo (1981 to 1985). After 1986 the 240 hood became NON-insulated once again, until the final year of production in 1993.  The 1993 models then came equipped with a new hood insulating pad. Engine heat and moisture would eventually damage these factory pads and make them pretty ugly.

In years past iPd offered their own aftermarket hood insulation kits for the 240, as shown below. These were pre-cut adhesive backed foam inserts which had a foil lining for heat protection. These are no longer available

For those of you interested in making your own insulation pieces, I'll go over what I've done below.

I used foam sheets I bought from McMaster Carr.
Specific examples are shown below. 1/2 inch thick foam works well. Both examples above were cut so they tucked under the hood brace. Cutting foam can be done with scissors. None of the foams I have used had adhesive backing, but that's an option you can explore on your own if you like.

The WHITE HOOD shown above was done many years ago with OPEN CELL foam (first option below PN 8614K83). It will usually be found in a GRAY color, but it can be painted black with acrylic paint if needed. It helps at lot to make a template out of paper or cardboard first and make sure that fits. Then cut the foam. If you use very soft foam and it later begins to droop in the center, I suggest putting some contact adhesive behind it.  The first OPEN CELL foam option below held up to engine heat for many years, but it will eventually begin to dry out and then deteriorate after probably more than 10 years. The flame-retardant option below might be better, but I haven't tried it.

The ABOVE two items from McMaster Carr are decent choices if you decide to try OPEN CELL foam. If you choose the flame retardant foam, PN 86115K31, 3 feet (x 54 inches wide) will be enough to do one hood.

The BLACK HOOD shown above was done more recently with CLOSED CELL foam, which will probably be a better choice for durability. Foams like this will usually be found in a BLACK or GRAY color.  This one below was supposed to be BLACK, but it was actually a DARK GRAY when it came. This foam can be painted black with acrylic paint if needed.

This option above (Ionomer Foam, PN 86205K93) is the one I used more recently on the black hood shown above. Even though it's called "SOFT", it turned out to be very rigid and it's a little tough to bend and force behind the hood bracing, but it can be done as seen in my photo.  TWO 24 x 36 inch pieces will be needed to do one hood.

Closed Cell option #2

This second option above (Buna-N Foam) will be a better choice if you want it to be flame retardant.
For the installation to go easier, I recommend choosing the
Extra Soft, PN 85175K59, or Ultra Soft, PN 85175K29. 3 feet (x 54 inches wide) will be enough to do one hood.

Other people have used insulating foam made specifically for car hoods or interiors, such as Fat Mat, Dynamat, etc.  These may be more expensive. I have no experience using these products on a hood.

for your rare or expensive lenses, click below for info in my Headlight Page.

240 Exhaust Mods
Click here for the 240 Exhaust Page

Get Variable Interval Wipers for your 240


MSD Ignition Spark Improvement for your 240 Turbo


Build your own custom 240 Spark Plug Cables

240 VIN Decoding Page

240 Power Mirror and Mirror Switch Page

DIY Front End Toe Alignment
Building and using a DIY Trammel Bar

240 Fuse Panel Diagrams and Fuse Box Inner Workings

I've created a page all about 240 fuse panels.  Lots of details there.

  Fuel Pump Relay Secrets, Mods and Fixes


240 Dash Top Gauge Pod Project
Project page for my dash top 3-gauge pod:    www.240turbo.com/dashgaugepod.html

240 Gauge Cluster Mods
A customer sent me some pics of his modified instrument cluster, so I thought I would share. 

Dealing with 240 Smog Emission Compliance
Since I lived in California for most of my life, I have plenty of experience working to make 240s emission compliant.  This can be a huge source of frustration and it can be very expensive if you have to resort to paying someone every two years to work on the car for you. 

Don't give up. The below discussions threads are really good ones. It offers a lot of good experience from people who've ultimately been successful and the thread itself is a great success story. 

And a great article on this subject (also highlighted in this thread):

Improving 240 Gauge and Dash Lighting

240 Instrument Cluster Diagrams and Gauge Electrical Fixes
Here's a growing collection of 240 gauge info that can come in handy if you're doing your own work on your 240 gauges or instrument cluster. 
Click an image or go HERE:  www.240turbo.com/240gaugewiring.html

240 Rear Light Bulbs
  Click this image to view the Matthews Volvo Site Volvo Bulb Guide I'm adding this here because I get a fair number of emails from 240 owners who have melting taillights.  If this is you, then I'm suggesting you have the wrong bulbs installed in your car.  For example, many 240 taillights require a small 5 or 10 watt bulb (Osram 5007 or 5008) for the rear running lights (it's the one in the top row, far right).  But many 240 owners will go to their local auto parts store and just buy what fits, often a common 1156 bulb because it has the same base and fits. The problem is that an 1156 bulb will typically put out 26 watts.  That's a LOT of extra heat and that will be why your taillights are melting. 

240 Fog Light or Driving Light Installation

I found these driving light diagrams below in some OLD Volvo 242 GT literature.  I modified them for simplicity and I decided to share them here. These diagrams below will show you two different methods of wiring; one for driving lights and one for fog lights. It uses a dash switch in conjunction with the 240 headlight step relay and with an added cube relay. The relay shown for both methods is an SPST (Single Pole, Single Throw) type cube or mini relay. An SPST type relay is one that uses a center 87 pin (AKA: 87b) which has power when the outer 87 pin has power.  Using this type relay is not critical if you're not using the center 87 pin like in these diagrams. If you're looking for a relay like this you can find one here.

There is a reason for wiring the circuit to the step relay.  For Driving Lights, the diagram allows the lights to be automatically cut off when you switch OFF your high beams.  For Fog Lights, the diagram allows the lights to be cut off when you switch ON your high beams.

The battery power is drawn from the inner fender battery junction box or it may be taken directly from the battery.
A FUSE should be used somewhere between the battery power source and the relay.

  Driving Lights:
With this method, the DRIVING LIGHT switch receives power from TERMINAL 56a on the headlight step relay. 56a on the step relay is the high beam output, so this means these lights will be configured as auxiliary high beam lights that will only come on when the dash switch is turned on AND when the high beams are also on. When the driving light switch is turned on, it sends power to terminal 85 on the cube relay, turning the relay ON.
So then turning ON your high beams will turn ON these driving lights
, as long as the driving light switch is in the ON position. 
If the switch has a bulb as this one shown does, then it will light up when the driving lights are on if wired this way.

Fog Lights:
  I modified this diagram to demonstrate a method for fog lights. With this method, the fog light switch receives power from TERMINAL 56b on the headlight step relay when your headlight switch is turned on. The switch sends power to terminal 85 on the cube relay, turning it ON.  56b on the step relay is the low beam output, so this means the fog lights will only come on when the dash FOG LIGHT switch is turned ON and when the low headlight beams are also ON.
So then with this wiring, turning ON your high beams will turn OFF the fog lights.
If the dash switch has a bulb as this one shown does, then it will light up when the fog lights are on if wired this way.

Additional relay uses can be found in the Relay Guide posted HERE.

Detailed pinouts for a 240 step relay can be found HERE.

Installing Big Cadillac 4-Note Horns in a 240
I did this on my 240.

Installation of a Primary Electric Cooling Fan for a 240
When in good working order, the original belt-driven clutch fan in your 240 can handle most cooling needs.  But if you have been thinking that your 240 needs an electric primary cooling fan, here is a page I put together on my experiences with a number of electric fan conversions over MANY years, from 1998 to present with small GM fans, Volvo fans and big Ford or Lincoln fans.  Plus I have a variety of wiring diagrams for building your own relay fan control systems if you like.

4-Speed Cooling Fan Controller Project
(using a LINCOLN MARK VIII fan)
In 2016 I got tired of failing "high-tech" fan controllers that would burn up after a year or two. They could not handle a heavy load when trying to control a big Lincoln Mark VIII fan. They always failed in the worst places.  So I decided to design and build my own fan controller with FOUR speeds using my knowledge of RELIABLE heavy duty RELAYS. It worked great!  The full plans are here.
Click here: www.240turbo.com/fanharness.html

AutoCoolGuy PWM Fan Controller Installation
(for my LINCOLN MARK VIII fan)
New addition for My 242 Turbo in 2018.
Click here: www.240turbo.com/autocoolguy

WIDGET MAN Brushless Fan Controller Installation
New addition for My 242 Turbo in 2023.
Click here:  www.240turbo.com/BrushlessFans.html

Painting 240 Taillamps

I get questions about the taillights on my car occasionally. These lights originally began as ALL CLEAR lights like in the below photo. At the time, finding half-clear lights was not possible. They can be found on eBay now. I didn't want all-clear lights, so I painted the bottom lenses myself using the below Testers transparent red paint, 1605 Gloss Custom Red.  This paint is easy to use and goes on pretty well. It takes several light coats to get to the shade of red I got.  Let it dry between coats and keep adding paint lightly until you have the red you like.  It will slowly darken with each coat.  These lights have been on my car for well over 10 years and still look new.  Part of this reason is the car is always garaged.

If you need to tint in AMBER, I have not tried any transparent amber paints yet, but I have heard of good results from the below Tamiya TS-73 Clear Orange for Plastics.

I have also read that you can get good results from a transparent STAINED GLASS paint.  Kyrylon makes such paint in aerosol in ORANGE and RED. I have not used these yet.

Feel free to email anytime with questions or comments.


Stepper Idle Air Control Project

In 2018 I began working on a stand-alone manually adjustable idle control valve for my car using a GM stepper IAC motor.
Click the above images or below link to see it.

Feel free to email anytime with questions or comments.


240 Interior Renewal Project

This discussion thread below began in May 2018 and it's a goldmine for inspiration on making your old 240 interior look brand new again.  It's a great resource for information on paints and interior parts too, so I had to share it here for those of you who haven't seen it.

If you want to see a good video on removing 240 door panels, here's one.

Feel free to email anytime with questions or comments.


240 Door Card Build Project

This 240 Door Card Build thread was shared in December 2018. If you're patient and handy, it shows some great ideas for you to completely remake new 240 door cards to replace the old, warped or rotten ones in your 240.

UPDATE 2023:
The above thread now has a lot of broken images.  Luckily I saved a PDF of the original thread with all images, which should help if you're doing a project like this.

If you need to replace or create new plastic moisture barriers, lots of people have suggested using shower curtain plastic.

Feel free to email anytime with questions or comments.


240 Exterior Paint Renewal Project
This discussion thread below began in 2015 and outlines a 245 owner who went the distance in restoring his newly acquired 245 exterior paint to look exceptionally nice. His efforts paid off.  It's a great inspiration to 240 lovers.

Feel free to email anytime with questions or comments.


Custom Yoshifab Turbo Oil Drain Hose for Volvo Turbo Red Blocks
 <<< When Volvo designed the 240 Turbo engine they used a rigid steel drain pipe for the turbo oil return (same design for later 740 Turbo and 940 Turbo). The lower part of the pipe was designed to seal into the hole in the block. Despite having a rubber o-ring on the pipe, these tubes usually leaked at the block.

has brought the red block drain pipe into the 21st century by introducing a new custom hose fitting that fits into the existing hole and allows you to use modern racing hose and fittings for a much better drain system. 

Yoshifab Catch Can (breather box) Installation
I installed a Yoshifab oil catch can in my 242 Turbo.  I don't always follow directions and I often ignore "sound" advice. This install continues with that philosophy. 

Detailed Project Page HERE:
Feel free to email anytime with questions or comments.

Volvo Red Block OIL COOLER Information
This information may come in handy when working on oil cooler systems on red blocks.  I compiled a new web page just for this info.

Oil Cooler Thermostats
The factory oil cooler thermostat in my 240 Turbo oil filter plate seemed to have stopped working.  My guess is it was stuck in the wide open position, since it was taking forever for the engine oil to come up to temperature.  So I decided to add an IN-LINE oil cooler thermostat in the lines between the engine and the oil cooler. 
You can find that info here: https://www.240turbo.com/oilcooler.html

Removing or Replacing 240 Door Top Black Vinyl Trim
I gets lots of questions about doing this kind of work or where someone can buy these black vinyl trim pieces. 
They have not been available for a lot of years from Volvo or any other source, but if you're persistent, good results are possible.

If you want new black vinyl for your 240, contact me. I can supply the new stripes you'll need. 
CLICK HERE: https://www.prancingmoose.com/doorvinyl.html

Here's a pic sent by a customer. The black vinyl trim on his 240 doors has dried up and cracked.  The paint on this car still looks nice. Can this vinyl be safely removed without damaging the paint? 
The answer is YES.

 First step is to buy a special vinyl eraser wheel that will fit on your drill.  Try a search. They're easy to find these days.  Not so easy when I last did this to my 245 almost 20 years ago.  Here's one for about $15 from Amazonamazon.com/Remover-Stickers/B00VFACQRE/

Here's a YouTube video on this eraser wheel: www.youtube.com/IJLIvxmB7e4
You can go through TWO of these eraser wheels on a large job like a typical 245.

Work slowly and try not to allow too much heat to build up on the paint.  This wheel will buff the vinyl off and it'll do a much better job that any other method I know.  In fact it will usually remove the vinyl without leaving any damage to the paint underneath.  And if there is still some residue on the paint, you may then finish with some final cleaning with a mild solvent, such as Goo-Gone or some paint polish, rubbing compound or cleaner wax. 

On the doors, it will be best to remove the window rubber scraper molding strips. Those simply pry off.  There are instructions for this removal in my 240 window scraper page: https://www.prancingmoose.com/240WindowMoldings.html

Also it is recommended to remove the side mirrors for this job.  On some cars they will simply be in the way.

Reinstalling new vinyl is not difficult.  It's best to remove the mirrors and window scraper trim moldings from the tops of the doors.  Do not remove the window trim below the rear (non-roll-up) windows.  This proceedure is best done in a shady area so that the hot sun doesn't dry things out too quickly while you're working.

Use some pieces of masking tape to mark positions along the door or lay a masking tape line where you want the BOTTOM of the new stripe to be. This will help keep your stripe straight. Most stripes are about 2.5 to 3 inches wide, when measuring from the window scraper metal trim strip to the bottom of the stripe. Most 240 Turbos had 3 inch stripes, but the stripes got a bit more narrow in later years. 

The correct installation is to use the WET method. This involves wetting the paint surface and vinyl adhesive surface with slightly soapy water. The water solution allows you to slide the vinyl into the precise position and to squeegee out any air pockets.  Mix a 16 ounce spray bottle with water and 1/4 teaspoon or less of dish soap (something like Dawn. Not dishwasher soap).

Peel the backing off the vinyl stripe and then spray the adhesive side of the stripe and the car paint with the soapy water solution.  Lay the stripe on the car, adhesive side down, and slide it into place.  Then spray the top of the stripe and carefully squeegee into place while pushing out any trapped air pockets.  If needed, you may still lift sections of the vinyl and re-spray underneath to help in case thing begin drying before you finish.  The soapy water will help minimize scratching the vinyl from the squeegee.  You can also wrap the squeegee in a soft cloth to eliminate scratches. There are also plastic squeegees available with part of it covered in felt.  Once the vinyl is in position and firmly set, if there is any trimming needed on the glass side or under the scraper trim strips, between doors, etc., this can be done then.  A sharp hobby knife works well for that.

If you want new black vinyl for your 240, contact me. I can supply the new stripes you'll need. 
CLICK HERE: https://www.prancingmoose.com/doorvinyl.html

Electric/Hydraulic or Electric Power Assist Steering
If you like having power steering, but for some reason the traditional hydraulic setup isn't quite right for your modified Volvo (or if you want to convert an older manual steering Volvo to power assist) here are some possible answers.

A number of years ago, Josh Sadler of Yoshifab converted his Volvo 242 to electric/hydraulic steering.  Josh's system was fairly simple. It used the original Volvo power steering rack.  He mounted an electric/hydraulic steering pump and reservoir from a Toyota MR2 in his trunk and had hydraulic hoses made to route all the way to the stock steering rack.  The result worked pretty well. 
Here's a discussion thread on his installation: https://turbobricks.com/forums/showthread.php?t=135556

See his YouTube video below.

Here's another more detailed thread on a different MR2 pump installation in a Volvo: https://forums.tbforums.com/showthread.php?t=247548

Or here's a video below about someone who used a VOLVO electric/hydraulic steering pump to feed the power steering. He didn't install it in a Volvo, but this pump/reservoir is from approximately 2004-2013 Volvo C30, C70, S40, V50 variants. The pump/reservoir is Volvo PN 36050678.
According to the Volvo Greenbooks, Volvo high pressure power steering lines can see 900 PSI. So can you assemble your own DIY HIGH PRESSURE power steering hoses?
It's a great question.  It certainly appears you CAN. Several racing hose makers offer DIY hose and ends.

Russell PowerFlex hose is advertised with a rating of 2500 PSI.


Earls power steering hose is rated at 3000 PSI. 

And here's the next generation steering mod.
Steering Column EPAS.

Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS)
 Units from a Saturn Vue, Chevrolet Equinox or Pontiac Torrent and other modern cars.
  The EPAS is mounted in the steering column, so the level of tech is much higher.
This was an installation under the dash of a Volvo P1800 (pics below).
See discussion threads here:
Here's a supplier of just such kits that you may be interested in seeing: www.epowersteering.com/index.html

More info:
VOLVO 240 Specific: https://forums.tbforums.com/showthread.php?t=334886

Identifying a Power Steering Rack in your 240

Volvo 240 Power Steering Rack Identification Info: Volvo TP 31579/1 (1990 publication) shows CAM units were used exclusively in 1975. From 1976 to 1990 both CAM and ZF power steering units were being used in 240s.  CAM units had four different types, and ZF had two different types.  In most cases, a CAM rack can quickly be identified by the rubber boot outer end which narrows down to a small opening where it's clamped to the tie rod. With a ZF rack, the rubber boot outer end normally clamps to a larger rubber bushing on the tie rod. 
bought CAM Gear Ltd. in the mid-1980s, so you will find TRW/CAM racks in later year 240s.

This boot information relies on parts being original. Keep in mind that different boots or tie rods may have been installed over the years.

Here's a ZF rack below where a "ZF" mark can be seen on the casting after cleaning. Also note the shape of the cover seen just to the right of that "ZF" mark.
Another ZF rack shown below, with another view of the cover and the boots mounted to a rubber bushing.

Here's view of a CAM or TRW rack below.

More info here: people.physics.anu.edu.au/steering_camgears_trw.htm
If you can improve this information, please email.

Classic Car Insurance for your Classic Volvo
This is a bit of an unusual subject for a mods page, but I know it will be helpful to some Volvo owners out there. 
Many classic Volvos are certainly appreciating in value. It's not quite the same appreciation of some more popular classics, but if you take really good care of your Volvo and it's a model that's desirable or may be collectable, then you may also see some appreciation in value.  Many of us old Volvo owners have put a considerable amount of money and effort into restorations or modifications.  Your standard car insurance company will likely not be on your side if something tragic happens to that Volvo. They will typically offer a lowball amount that they think is "comparable" to other random Volvo sales they think are "similar."  I have had to fight for a better settlement on a few occasions for wrecked Volvos and it's not a pleasant task.

What is Agreed Value?
There are classic car insurance companies who will offer "Agreed Value" policies for antique or collectable classics. You don't have to own an Italian exotic or 1960's muscle car to get such a policy. An agreed value policy is one that's issued like any other policy with similar liability coverage, except YOU SET the value of your car and the insurance company simply sets the premium cost if they agree to cover your valuation. In the event that your car is then totaled or stolen, the payout is that agreed amount. No arguments. No negotiation.
Keep in mind that an insurance company may reject an absurdly value if you shoot for the moon, so you need to exercise some reason.  They also make it pretty clear that they will not cover your car if you damage it while racing, so this kind of policy probably won't work for a race car that is still raced.

Agreed Value companies will also have other specific requirements. Most don't limit your miles driven, but they will probably have some expectations, such as:
It's Not a Daily Driver: They will probably make you prove you have a different car for daily driving, since they expect a
classic car to not be your "regular use vehicle."
Stored Indoors:  This may not be a absolute requirement, but in most cases, it will be.  Sometimes they will approve covered parking.

My '84 242 qualified for these standards, so with this information in mind I set out to find such a policy.  Unfortunately, I began with Grundy Insurance.  That was a waste of time. Grundy is well known for there collector car insurance and they advertise heavily on car enthusiast TV shows.

I read on Grundy's web page,"Grundy insures most types of vehicles 25 years old and older.  We also insure modern muscle cars and exotics of all years.  Not only that, we insure modified vehicles with higher performance engines, suspensions, and modified bodies.  We understand custom vehicle valuations very well, and in fact Grundy is the largest insurer of hot rods in the USA!"
Grundy's statement sounded hopeful, so I went on their web page and submitted my info. I received an online quote for my 1984 242 Turbo, which I valued at $13,000.  I submitted my application and mailed my payment as instructed and waited for their approval. Several weeks later I received the above DECLINE letter with my returned check. You can read the above DECLINE letter for yourself. 

I was pissed that they wasted so much of my time. 
They clearly do not insure classic cars as they claim on their LYING website.

I recommend you don't waste your time on Grundy.


I mentioned the above decline letter to a friend of mine who owns a very nice, very modified modified 242.  He told me he had been carrying an agreed value policy with Hagerty Insurance for ten years. His agreed value was considerable more than the $13,000 I wanted placed on my car.  This was good, useful info.
  This means that Hagerty has a very different view of the classic Volvo car market, at least where the 240 is concerned.

So I submitted an on line application at the Hagerty website and received an immediate quote for a policy with a $13,000 agreed value.
  I then sent my on-line application and payment.

Approximately one day after submitting my application, I received an email APPROVAL from for my new policy. 
So I can certainly recommend Hagerty Insurance if you're considering such a policy for your classic Volvo.

Some Notes about how Hagerty sets their classic car policies.

Hagerty sets general parameters for Antique or Classic cars they insure as follows: 

"Antique vehicle" means a motor vehicle 25 years or more of age that: 1. Is maintained primarily for use in car club activities, exhibitions, parades, other functions of public interest or for a private collection; and 2. Is used only infrequently for other purposes.

"Classic vehicle" means a motor vehicle of unique or rare design and of limited production that is an object of curiosity and: 1. Is maintained primarily for use in car club activities, exhibitions, parades,
other functions of public interest or for a private collection; and 2. Is used only infrequently for other purposes.

"Regular use vehicle" means a motor vehicle which is used for regular driving to work, school, shopping, errands or for general transportation and is not an "antique vehicle" or "classic vehicle."


Classic Auto Air all new Air Conditioning Installation
I finally grew tired enough of my mediocre Volvo AC in my 242 to explore an extreme option.  This is a complete new AC system installation from Classic Auto Air.  I also spent the time installing Dynamat while the interior was out of the car.  It was a LOT of work, but overall a good project. 
I created a new web page all about the new AC conversion.  CLICK HERE!

Dealing with a Cracked 240 Dash
If you own a 240, it probably has a cracked dash.  An uncracked one is rare, especially for a 1981 to 1988 240.  The sun dries out the vinyl over many years and they eventually crack.  There are ways to avoid this.  Keeping the car out of the sun is one.  Covering the dash is another. Treating the vinyl with Armour All or similar protectant on an obsessive basis will do a lot to help.

If it's too late for your dash, there are a couple options.  One is very expensive.  Justdashes.com offers full dash refurbishing, even for a 240 dash of any year.  Cost is quite high, about $1300 for an all black dash from a 1981 and later 240 (and more money to match a color), but they claim the dash will be perfect and as new.

Coverlaymfg.com offers thin ABS plastic covers for the dash top for a bit over $200.
This one is reported to be high quality.
Some people have used similar products over the years and have seen them crack over time if left in the sun. 
This may sound to you like a poor quality alternative, but there are other people who have had great success with some extra effort.  Maybe cracking should be expected if you never garage your 240. If that's you, maybe just buy a cloth dash cover and be done with it. 

AmericanDashCaps.com/Volvo offers less expensive ABS dash covers.  Their quality is not known to me.
Some have reported good results with these products and they advise to first fill the cracks with a strong adhesive, such as a high-quality RTV glue that will keep the crack from growing after the dash top is placed on.

Here are some nice success stories: If you are considering a plastic dash cover, this link below is a restoration thread for a 1981 Volvo 262C. The dash restoration begins at Post #147, which is on Page 3, and goes to Post #161:  forums.turbobricks.com/256460&page=3 .
This dash turned out very nice.

Also a long-time 240 owner I know bought a plastic dash cover from iPd way back in 2002.  The car is always garaged and the cover has held up really well for all these years. 

<<< There was a small bit of 'warpage' on the very thin cross section (due to the top center speaker opening) right under the windshield, but other than that, it has stayed pretty flawless. This section can be seen in the photo at left.   This photo was taken during a windshield replacement.  This owner added a could small clips to hold the cover down.

He didn't "glue" the cover down using silicone adhesive, which was the recommended method, so perhaps that might have eliminated the warpage.  Instead he used four black trim screws -- one on either side of the center speaker opening, and one on each end of the dash. Those are hidden when the doors are closed.  He took care to drill the holes in the cover a bit larger than the screw and he didn't tighten them down completely tight, so that the cover could still expand and contract without causing any problems. After 16 years, it still looks nice. 

iPd still offers 240 plastic dash caps.
So does Auslander here: auslandervlv.com/240-dashboard-repair-kit.
Here are some VIDEOS:
#1 Unboxing and trying out.

#2 Installation.

Installing Rear Wheel Spacers - Wider Track
There are some good reasons why you might want wheel spacers or wheel adapters for your 240. 
When my 242 had these Eiker wheels (more pics here: www.240turbo.com)  I was annoyed by the large gap between the rear tires and the outer fenders.

Don't let a REAR FENDER GAP like THIS happen to YOUR CAR!

I bought some 25 mm spacers for my 240.  These spacers (photo below) had the standard Volvo 5 x 108 mm bolt pattern for both mounting surfaces.

iPd offers a pair of these 25 mm (hub-centric) spacers: www.ipdusa.com/products/11525/125006

Kaplhenke Racing offers a different style of (hub-centric) spacer.  Their spacers come with longer wheel studs.  They also offer other thicknesses besides 25 mm if needed:  www.kaplhenke.com/collections/240/

That strange rear extra fender gap is caused by Volvo designing the rear wheel track 70 mm narrower than the front track. I don't know why. 
240 Factory Wheel Track Width 1977-93 (measured at center of wheel to center of wheel).
Front:  1420 mm (55.9 inches)
Rear:   1350 mm (53.14 inches
Trivia Note: Prior to 1977, the 240 used wheels with 25 mm offset. Beginning in 1977 that changed to wheels with 20 mm offset, widening the track by 10 mm.

Here is the 25 mm spacer mounted on my 240 rear hub.

CALCULATING NET OFFSET:  These wheels originally had a 20 mm POSITIVE offset (ET20).  Adding a 25 mm spacer means that I converted the wheels to 5 mm NEGATIVE offset.

It's important to decide if you will be using a spacer or adapter that is either HUB-CENTRIC or LUG-CENTRIC. 
Hub-Centric means that the center raised lip that fits into the wheel center is present and will keep the wheel centered before you lighten the lugs.  It means that the weight of the car is supported by the hub.
Lug-Centric mean no center lip is present and the wheel must be centered using the lugs. It means that the weight of the car is supported by the lugs. There are many generic spacers on line that are Lug-Centric. 
Here's a TB discussion for you: forums.tbforums.com/showthread.php?t=349054.

Before adding these spacers I did not have any tire contact between the outside of the tire and the inner fender lip, because the wheels were inboard quite a bit.
AFTER installing the spacers I took this photo BELOW. 

I needed to make some extra room in this area as you can see here. The etched line is where I made the cut.  If you push your wheels closer to your fenders as I did, you too may find you may need to make more room for those tires on the outside.  The tire size in this photo is 215/45-17 on a 7.5 inch wheel.

NOTE: I later went to wider 235/40-17 tires when I changed to a different style 17 x 7.5 inch wheel (using the same offset). It also cleared the fender, but after trimming a bit more, which can be seen below or HERE. You can fit a wide range of tire sizes on a 7.5 inch wheel width.

ROLLING VERSUS TRIMMING: Many people will tell you that you can easily roll your fender inner sheet metal.Most people have never actually tried doing that on a 240. You can try.  It's not as easy as it sounds. That steel lip in a 240 is double thickness steel and rolling it is VERY hard with very limited results. Most people who roll a 240 fender will end up finishing it off with a sledge hammer, because rolling alone didn't work. You need to be aware that rolling or pounding on your fender will probably result in cracks in your paint.  Heating up your paint using a heat gun to 120-140 degrees Fahrenheit during the procedure will reduce cracking. 

Here's a good thread with pics that outlines the ROLLING/POUNDING METHOD pretty well:

I've done many 240 rear fenders over the years and I no longer mess with rolling or pounding.  A sawzall is very fast for this kind of trimmimg.  A rotary cutter or grinder works too, but is slower.

Wider Rear Wheel/Tire FENDER CLEARANCE
for your 240
When going with wider tires on your 240, you'll need to deal with the likely result of rear tire rubbing on bumps, especially if your car is lower than stock.  The back half rear arch may need to be trimmed by 1/2 inch or more, depending on your ride height and how far the tires need to tuck inside the fender when compressed.  Some people prefer to ROLL the inner sheet metal instead of trimming. On many cars this is a pretty easy thing to do, but not on a 240. The 240 sheet metal at that place is TWO LAYERS, which makes rolling very hard. 

Most people who use the rolling method on a 240 end up finishing with a
sledge hammer because rolling alone didn't work well.  And keep in mind that the rolling method has a pretty high chance of cracking your old paint.  You won't like that if it happens. Heating up your paint using a heat gun to 120-140 degrees Fahrenheit during the procedure will reduce cracking.

The area marked in RED below is the general area of that inner lip that INITIALLY needs rolling (or cutting) to reduce tire rubbing on medium bumps if your 240 is lowered car or on a car with wheels out near the fenders.  This is the FIRST (but not only) rubbing area you will encounter when your tires begin to get CLOSER to the fenders.

Here's a good thread with pics which outlines the ROLLING/HAMMERING METHODS during the installation of BMW Style 42 wheels on a 245:

It's just my opinion . . .
I think the above rolling/hammering modification is a good beginning step for making more room, but it does not go far enough if your car will be lowered and you want the rear tires to TUCK IN WITHOUT HITTING METAL.  Do you want to retain full suspension travel all the way to bump stops?  Rolling the lip where the above photo shows will reduce rubbing at the back
arch, but it's only the beginning.

Yes, I know . . . This is lowered much more than most 240 owners will want.  But if you need your wider tires to tuck into the fenders when the suspension compresses, you will need to do more that rolling.

Keep reading for more options.
The below illustration will help explain what I did on my 242 when I went with a BMW mesh style wheel and lug pattern adapters. I mounted 235/40-17 tires and my rear wheels were pushed out fairly close to the fenders
. My trimming of the rear lip started out slowly, a little at a time in a careful trial-and-error method. After trimming the lip it cleared the tire, BUT I found there was still rubbing when the suspension was compressed. This rubbing happened when the suspension compressed and the location was the top outer tread of the tire rubbing on the inside of the fender where that inner fender curves inward.

So then I cut and removed that inner sheet metal curvature that prevented the tire from tucking all the way up. This resulted in perfect clearance and the car could then FULLY BOTTOM OUT the rear suspension in a hard dip with ZERO rub
bing.  That means hitting the bump stops with no rubbing.  That's never gonna happen with rolling the lip alone. 

The below illustrations will show how this was done.
I began the cutting with a high-speed cut-off wheel, but found it was slow-going. 
I then tried my Ryobi cordless saw-zall and it was many times faster. 

I have been told this is similar to the modification made to Group A racing Volvos to fit their large wheels/tires.

Here's a depiction of the sheet metal piece I made using simple tools . . . tin snips, etc.

 Here's a view of the RIGHT SIDE inner rear fender toward the rear AFTER all the work was done.  I sprayed it with undercoating after it was installed, so it's not easy to see.  I created an outline of the sheet metal shape in this photo to make it easier to see.

 Here's the same inner fender toward the front.


This pic above was the final result of my 242 after I completed the above inner fender trimming. There is zero rubbing, even when bottoming out the suspension.
For more info on how I installed these wheels using custom adapter (Volvo to BMW bolt pattern), go to https://www.240turbo.com/index.html#bmw5x108.

Calculating Correct Wheel Offset for your 240
There are plenty of sites out there that will explain offset for you, so I will try to stick with how I calculated the right offset for my 242 when I changed from 17 inch Eiker wheels to 17 inch multi-spoke wheels (with BMW bolt pattern) using billet aluminum adapters.

Here's a good image that quickly explains how offsets are measured.  Most wheels for a Volvo will have POSITIVE offset.  The amount of offset for the wheels you choose will be very important. 

Start by measuring the wheels on your car now.  For example: If you have 240 Turbo wheels (Virgos), they have 20 mm POSITIVE offset (you'll find "ET20" embossed into the wheel casting). If you have 700/900 wheels, they probably have 25 mm POSITIVE offset. If you have FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE wheels, they will have a lot more positive offset than 240 wheels, as much as 35 to 40 mm POSITIVE offset.

When I began my calculations, my 242 had a set of Eiker E1 wheels.  These wheels are 7.5 inches wide and have 20 mm POSITIVE offset. At that time I had also already installed 25 mm spacers behind the rear wheels (info on those spacers above or HERE). So this meant that with the spacers, my wheels actually had 5 mm NEGATIVE offset.

I had a good look at the REAR fender gap between my tires and the outside fender and I decided I generally liked that gap. See that above or

Then looking at my front wheels, which did not have a spacer behind the Eikers, I decided the 20 mm POSITIVE offset of the Eikers seemed to be a good fit as is.  When checking YOUR FRONT wheel/tire clearances, be sure to also look at the spacing between the INNER tire and your STRUT TUBE (or between your tire and your coilover if you have those).  If you're not going to really wide tires, you won't have a problem here, but you don't want to do all this work and later discover your wide front tire is TOO CLOSE to your strut

When I was shopping for wheels to replace the Eikers, I knew I would need to concentrate on something with more offset than the Eikers, since I would need the extra room to add an adapter behind each wheel.  I eventually settled on wheels that were 7.5 inches wide with 35 mm POSITIVE offset. 
REAR: I calculated that by adding a 40 mm thick adapter behind the new 35 mm POSITIVE offset REAR wheels, that would make the combined offset 5 mm NEGATIVE, the exact same net offset as the Eiker wheels with spacers I had on the rear before.
FRONT: By using a 20 mm thick adapter on the front, that 35 mm POSITIVE offset FRONT wheel changed into a 15 mm POSITIVE offset.  This is close enough to the 20 mm offset I originally had with the Eikers. That 5 mm difference pushes the front wheels outward slightly (less than 1/4 inch).

The adapter maker I chose was http://www.motorsport-tech.com
  The minimum thickness they will make is 15 to 20 mm.  I went with a 20 mm thick front adapter. 

Now draw yourself some diagrams if it helps you visualize all this. 

Here's a good Turbobricks discussion thread with related info: https://forums.tbforums.com/showthread.php?t=339645
Turbobricks Wheel Guide: forums.turbobricks.com/72501&highlight=wheel+guide

If offset is a bit too complicated, you can try this Rim and Tire Size Calculator for Custom Offset calculations:

More useful info from Discount Tire.

Or try playing with tire and wheel sizes in this calculator. Pretty interesting.

It's important to decide if you will be using a spacer or adapter that is either HUB-CENTRIC or LUG-CENTRIC. 
Hub-Centric means that the center raised lip that fits into the wheel center is present and will keep the wheel centered before you lighten the lugs.  It means that the weight of the car is supported by the hub.
Lug-Centric mean no center lip is present and the wheel must be centered using the lugs. It means that the weight of the car is supported by the lugs. There are many generic spacers on line that are Lug-Centric. 
Here's a TB discussion for you: forums.tbforums.com/showthread.php?t=349054.

Momo Steering Wheel Hub for the 240
Installing a Momo (or similar type) steering wheel in your 240 can really improve your driving experience.  It gives you lots of options for choosing a stylish or sporty steering wheel in a variety of sizes. 
You probably already know all this and luckily for you, that's NOT what this article is about. 

 This is about correcting or improving a common and annoying problem found in Momo (and similar) hubs that are available for your 240.

LOOK HERE.  These are typical 240 steering wheels.  The turn signal stalk has a small plastic lever that protrudes into and touches the TURN SIGNAL CANCEL HUMP when you activate the blinker.  That cancel hump is what cancels the blinker after your turn.

HERE we have a Momo steering hub for a 240.  Hubs like these can be found online.  A good place to look is www.kaplhenke.comThey actually offer two different brands; a Momo and an OMP.  Both are similar.

The problem with this Momo hub is the CANCEL HUMP. 
It's made into two rails with a channel in the middle instead of one solid hump like the original steering wheel. This causes the blinker cancellation to act differently and I find it annoying.

That is a simple piece of thin aluminum sheet that I trimmed and bent to fit in there tight.  Since it fits tight inside that channel, I found no need to glue it in.  Just about any material would work for this.  It could be a piece of plastic or a block of wood.  If it doesn't wedge in there tight, use some glue to keep it in place.

240 V Belt Sizes

Information on factory 240 accessory V belt sizes used to be easier to find, but it seems to have mostly disappeared from many useful sites. 
I put this info together many years ago for my own 240 uses. I thought I would share it here. 

Here's a PDF printable version of the below table: https://www.davebarton.com/pdf/240_V-Belts.pdf
Volvo PN
10 x 925 mm
2 needed. 76-83 240. Also PN 977260.
10 x 918 mm
2 needed. 84-93 240. Also 9.5 x 918mm.

NOTE for all 240 Alternators: If you're upgrading to a larger alternator which will need more room, such as the Bosch 100A unit, you might try using size 10 x 950 mm or even up to 10 x 975 mm.

AC to PS
13 x 1075 mm
77-84 240. Also 12.5 x 1075 mm.
AC to PS
10 x 850 mm

85-92 240.

AC to PS
11.9 x 835 mm
93 240.

Crank to PS (no AC present)
10 x 938 mm
77-89 240.

Crank to AC
13 x 925 mm
76-84 240. Also PN 978678.
Crank to AC 979631
13 x 975 mm
85-92 240.
Crank to AC 979277
13 x 938 mm
93 240.

1975-85 240 Headlight Switch Plug Problems
 From 1975 to 1985 the 240 was equipped with this headlight switch.  It's a metal case design with a 5-pole plastic plug (the switch itself only has 3-poles, so only 3 wires). As you can see in this photo, there is some melting deformation on this plug. This is at the RED wire, which is the power supply from the battery.  This is a very common occurrence that has happened to almost every pre-1986 240 I have ever seen. Some I've seen are much worse than this photo.
CLICK HERE for my HEADLIGHT PAGE: https://www.240turbo.com/headlight.html

Getting a Super Bright 240 Dome Light
The easiest mod on this page by far.
Simple as this.  I bought an LED bulb from the below source for my 242 dome light. 
Dim light gone.  Bright light now working very well. 

Matthews Volvo Site Bulb Guide: www.matthewsvolvosite.com/forums/61483
Other 240 interior and exterior bulb info in this Turbobricks thread:  forums.turbobricks.com/283706
iPd Bulb Reference: ipdusa.com/techtips/what-light-bulbs-fit-my-volvo
Volvo has owner's manuals going back many years (bulb info is in "Specifications"): www.volvocars.com/owners-manuals

Gentex Rear View Mirror Upgrade
Adding a more modern mirror for your 240 on the CHEAP.
with Auto Dimming, Compass and Outside Temperature.

I have liked modern features like this in other cars I've driven, so adding it to my 240 gave me a bonus.
If a mirror like this in your 240 seems interesting to you, check out my installation page.

Guide for Crimping Terminals
I've put together a page with instructions for crimping and assembling typical open barrel or EFI crimp terminals and connector housings. 

Hydraulic Clutch Info Page for your 240
I have a pretty heavy clutch in my 240. Back in 2011 I got tired of stretching, adjusting, stretching and then snapping clutch cables, so I installed a hydraulic setup for the clutch.  I recently updated the master cylinder from the Volvo unit to an aftermarket one and created a web page to help keep track of the parts and information for others to see. 

Here's the new page below:

Mounting Driving Lights on your 240 without Drilling your Bumper!
If you're one who likes the look or function of killer driving lights on your 240, but you don't want to drill holes in the top of your bumper, I'll show you an alternative to drilling holes in your bumper.  
CLICK HERE: https://www.240turbo.com/headlight.html

Making a Custom Cup Holder for your 240

We all know our beloved 240s never came with cup holders. There have been a number of cup holder projects in the internet over the years.  When I saw this one in the Turbobricks forum, I felt it really needed to be shown.  The thoughtful design allows it to be securely anchored over the e-brake handle, using the e-brake handle button to help pin the front against the shifter hump.  It's a nice design feature to keep in mind when you build (or adapt) such a thing for your car. 
See more photos and dimensions here:

And new for 2021, here's something new and ingenious for an early 240 (1975-1980).
They say they are also working on something for later 240s.

Installing a G80 Locking Differential (from a 700/900) into your 240
Click here for my 240 Limited Slip and Locking Rear End Page

Fixing Common Corroded Ground Points (and power connections) In Your 240
I hear about strange intermittent electrical problems from frustrated 240 owners quite often. These problems occur so often because of a few good reasons . . . .
#1: These cars are old and . . . .  
Electrical connections tend to slowly corrode over time, and . . .
Neglected cars that spend most of their lives outdoors always suffer more corrosion in electrical connections and ground points. 

Spending some time cleaning connections and making sure they are tight can go a long way in keeping your 240 running well, especially if your car has lived outdoors in the weather for many years (this is really bad for long electrical life for any car). 

WATCH THIS VIDEO (also read the COMMENTS section):

<<< Click the diagram image at left to access a THREE PAGE pdf file showing most 240 ground locations.

  Here's a look at a 240 center dash ground.

 And here's a ground point on the steering column that the Volvo diagrams FORGOT to mention. The left photo is an early 240. The right photo is a 1992. Later cars began using Torx fasteners (year unknown).

 And this ground is well hidden, but at least it was mentioned in the Volvo Ground Connection pages. It's next to the left side vertical dash brace on the left side of the transmission hump under your carpet
If you have ever heard of anyone pressing the horn button and the windshield wipers run, this ground is said to be the cause.  Corroded grounds do bad things.

Here's another mystery hidden ground point that no diagram mentions.  It's found on the left side of the transmission hump below the blower fan enclosure and vacuum reservoir.

And yet another ground point not mentioned in diagrams.  This is attached to one of the screws securing the left side lower fresh air vent. I think it's for a non-standard accessory relay, so it may not be found on all 240s.

On a related note . . . . .
These Relay Plugs were damaged from an overheated electrical connection. 
The owner of this car replaced the relay and it happened again. 
He was told by others that it was caused by a POWER SURGE and it was getting too much current. 
Sorry. That's B.S!
If your Volvo gets struck by lightning, then it might be a victim of power surge.

The reason for that melting was simply a POOR CONNECTION on that power terminal.

The victim of slow corrosion. 

This is a victim of slow corrosion which developed over many years (like on so many Volvos that are stored outside all the time).  Once the corrosion began in there the resistance went up drastically, which caused HEAT. 
That extra heat causes the corrosion to build faster, causing more resistance, which causes more heat until everything melts. 
This wasn't a current overload.  This kind of thing is VERY common in a 240 and it happens over a long period of time.

The best cure is a new plug and new terminals or clean the terminals you have really, really well. 
Then you should coat the contact areas with a smear of ANTI-CORROSIVE ZINC PASTE.

I believe such a paste would have prevented this damage from occurring.
If you need this new relay connector, I have it HERE.
If I have not yet fully convinced you of the importance of clean and tight electrical connections, I will repeat it again and again. If we can just just keep our connections clean and tight, almost all of the electrical issues would be gone forever.  That would be nice, right?

I have owned a number of Volvos over the last 30 plus years and my current 240 is way over 30 years old. It almost never has electrical problems. Nothing like the endless numbers of other 240s out there that I hear about so often. What's the difference you ask?  The difference is that my 240 has been always garaged all of its life.  Why is that important?  Because leaving any car out in the open elements for years and years slowly introduces corrosion to grounds and power connections until things begin to go wrong. 
So if you own one of those cars that has been outside forever, it's not too late. You can still clean as many grounds and electrical connections as possible. 
And while you're at it,
I recommend that you smear a little anti-corrosive zinc paste on those connections. 
Many people in the Volvo community gravitate toward
Ox-Gard, which does a similar job.  

The below information was contributed by Ron Kwas and should come in very handy to old Volvo owners:
Anti-Corrosive Zinc Paste (a generic name for zinc dust contained in a grease) was originally developed for and later required by electrical codes for use on alumunum to copper electrical connections (or other dissimilar metal connections).  No, it's not the same as Dielectric Grease, which is often incorrectly recommended. Dielectric Grease can offer some protection in the form of encapsulation from moisture, but it also carries with it the potential disadvantage of locking in moisture or corrosion which may have already begun.  Anti-Corrosive Zinc Paste (or ACZP) is the next evolution of the encapsulation principle, because zinc (the lowest on the Galvanic nobility chart) neutralizes corrosion on a micro-scale to truly protect connections on a long-term basis during the encapsulation, INCLUDING an added protection from corrosion which may otherwise begin to form in that connection. 

Ron uses and recommends Penetrox A (by Burndy).  Many Volvo fans are familiar with Ox-Gard, which is a similar zinc compound. Ron and I are huge advocates of treating ALL electrical connections on our cars (except of course High Voltage Ignition connections) with a suitable version of this material. 
You can learn more about this stuff at Ron's page here: 

Hardwiring your 240 Taillights (Tail Lamps)
I get a pretty fair number of emails about failing tail lamps in 240 sedans, so I decided to compile some info about that here. 

Volvo first began using these 6-panel taillights with PRINTED CIRCUITS in 1979 for upscale 6-cylinder models. Lesser models received the smaller 5-panel lights. In later years the 6-panel lights were used in upscale 4-cylinder models, such as the GL, GLT and Turbo. In 1984, all 240 models began receiving these taillights.

In 1985 the 240 models received revised 6-panel lights, which included a dual filament brake/tail light bulb (brake light moved to the lower outside) and a new rear fog lamp.

Most people with these tail lamps know what it's like to have bulbs that stop working due to connection issues between the plastic bulb holder and the printed circuit board conductor. It can be frustrating. Hardwiring them sounds like a big deal, but it's not hard at all. It means you will be tossing out your old circuit boards and then attaching wires directly to the contacts on your bulb holders. The wires can be soldered or crimp connectors can be used. I prefer crimp connectors.

Below photo from:
I did this modification to my 242 more than 10 years ago and I have never had a rear bulb problem since.
Having taillights that ALWAYS WORK when they're supposed to is worth the effort.

Certainly you can just buy new circuit boards on the internet, but those will just fail again. My advice to anyone having such bulb problems is to do the hardwire project, enjoy your perfect taillights and never look back.  If you're completely inept at mechanical and wiring issues, find someone who can help or show you how.

I won't go into great detail here about the procedures or wiring because there are several good sites listed below from others who have done this. I just want to cover a couple things from my own experiences.
I want to point out there are several options when attaching wires directly to
bulb holder contacts.

1. Soldering.  NOT what I prefer. Solder is fragile and will break eventually.

2. Using crimp female spade terminals. 
THIS is my personal preference because it makes it less likely that connections will break off when changing bulbs. 

If using .250 inch (6.3 mm) crimp terminals, you'll need to trim the metal contacts slightly, because those contacts will be a bit too wide for these terminals.  Trimming the contacts can be done with sheet metal snips. 

Or you can just use slightly larger female terminals. 

It turns out that
.312 inch (7.9 mm) female crimp terminals fit perfectly onto these tabs.
This is the size used on early 240 headlight connector plugs.
These terminals are available cheap in my Harness Parts
These terminals are available as straight terminals (shown below) or flag (90 degree) terminals. It doesn't matter which you use, except the flag terminals are a bit harder to crimp.

The hardest part about this project is figuring out what wires go to which terminal on which bulb holder. My advice it to get pencil and paper and start drawing diagrams of the wire colors going to the tail lights and use a test light to trace those colors to each bulb holder and each terminal on those bulb holders. Then figure out which tab on each bulb holder should receive each wire. Keep in mind that some bulbs may be DUAL FILAMENT BULBS and those holders have two hots and a ground for a total of three circuits. If you're using diagrams from other sources, remember that 1981-85 240s with 6-panel lights will have slightly DIFFERENT WIRING CIRCUITS than 1986-93 240s.


0.75 mm wire is close to AWG 18-20.
COLORS: BL = Blue; BN = Brown; GN = Green; GR = Gray; R = Red; SB = Black; W = White; Y = Yellow.
1979-84 240

1985-93 240

Here's a hard-wiring video that will give you the general idea .

Quick Fix to get your 240 Taillight Bulbs to Work Again (using aluminum foil).
If you have the above circuit board issues and don't have the time or patience to hard wire your bulbs (above), here's a quick fix. Thank you to Michael Yount for offering this solution.
Simply cut some small pieces of aluminum foil and place them on your circuit boards as shown in the photos.  Use some hobby tacky glue to keep them in place.  They will help bridge the bulb holder circuit if you have worn out circuit boards.

Lowering Your 240
Should you change the ride height of your 240? How?

Installing a Later Windshield in an early Volvo 240 or 140
This is a fairly common 240 mod with a fair amount of info already out there. But since I still get regular questions about this, I decided to create a new page. 

This is a good project for anyone with any older Volvo, especially if you have or want to to upgrade to brighter bulbs or headlights. 
Find this info in my Headlight Relay Page:  240turbo.com/headlightrelay.html#relayharness

Unlocking the Mysteries of the 240 Headlight Step Relay
And Test Procedure.
This relay is rather special in that it has a LATCHING function.  A latching function is where you can click and release a momentary button or switch (such as a high/low beam stalk) and the relay will LATCH (or lock) in the ON or OFF position until the switch or stalk is clicked again. For this Volvo relay, one click latches it "ON" and another click latches it "OFF."  I have created the diagram PDF for anyone who wants to better understand how these relays work. 
I have also added a test procedure on page 2 if you think you might have a broken one.


How to Substitute Available Relays
to ELIMINATE your Volvo 240 Headlight Step Relay
As original Volvo 240 headlight step relays become more expensive or less common, here I offer an alternative that you can assemble yourself to completely eliminate the Volvo 240 Step Relay if you want to. This method uses two readily available relays to accomplish the same functions
Click the below image to go to the Step Relay Page

        Your feedback is requested if you decide to do this for your 240.
        CONTACT ME

240 Electric Speedometer Custom Re-Calibration

This conversion info is found in my 240 Instrument Cluster Page:  240turbo.com/240gaugewiring.html


Understanding and Dealing with a Volvo Bulb Failure Sensor
Part 1 of 3
The Bulb Failure Sensor (or sometimes called a Bulb Failure Relay) is a device found in all 240, 700, 900 models that alerts the driver of a failed low-beam headlamp, parking lamp, tail lamp or brake lamp by sensing the balance of current draw between the left and right side lighting circuits.  When that dash light comes on, it means the sensor recognizes that one side is drawing more current that the other.  This is supposed to alert you that a bulb is out, but sometimes it can be triggered by incorrect or mismatched bulbs, or even when one side has a newer bulb than the other.  Some mystery dash light activations can also be caused by a bulb socket with a small bit of corrosion, so keeping connections and bulb sockets clean can help a lot.
More info and DIAGRAMS can be found in my Headlight Relay Page.
Some variations of the round style sensor:

SILVER sensor case with bracket, PN 1215684. 1975-77 240. Later PN is 1234652.

BLACK sensor case, PN 1235271. 1978-85 240, 740, 760.

SILVER sensor case, PN 1235271 (same as above ) 1978-85 240, 740, 760.
WHITE sensor case, PN 1362276, found in a 1991 245 (German spec. with no third brake light) that was later imported to Norway.

YELLOW sensor case, PN 1362278. 1978-85 240, 740, 760.

RED sensor case, PN 1362370. 1985-93 240, 1986 and later 740, 780, and 1991-94 940.
This information is taken from the best sources I have for mostly USA and Canada models.  It may not correctly apply to all European or Australian models.  I have received information that there are some Australian models with a different red case sensor from above, which I have not yet identified.  If you can help with info and/or photos of any other bulb sensors, please email.

#1 Recomendation: My best advice for those who are simply tired of seeing the bulb failure light come on when a bulb hasn't really failed is as follows.
Step 1:  Reach under the dash and find the offending bulb in the back of the instrument cluster.
Step 2:  Twist and remove.
Step 3:  Take it outside and throw it as far as you can!

Dealing with a Volvo Bulb Failure Sensor
Part 2 of 3

Making a "By-Pass" Plug out of an old Bulb Failure Sensor
Sometimes this sensor can fail internally, rendering some of your lights inoperable.
Volvo was way ahead of us on this BYPASS idea and this part was (maybe still is) available at a typical Volvo high-dollar price.

Volvo PN 1308561 Bypass Plug

Failures are becoming more common as these cars age or sometimes when incorrect, higher wattage rear bulbs are installed.
FAILURE SYMPTOMS: The symptoms of failure can be headlights or tail lights (or sometimes just one whole side) that will not work even after verifying the fuses, switches, headlight relays and wiring are all in good order.

<<< BLACK Sensor 1235271: Referring to the diagram at left, for those of you who have had enough of the BLACK 1978-85 bulb failure sensor, here is a diagram showing the internal workings and instructions for bypassing or eliminating its function if needed.  Bypassing this sensor will eliminate the bulb failure light in your dash, but more importantly, it will eliminate the fragile circuits inside this sensor which can kill your low-beam headlamps, parking lamps, tail lamps and brake lamps if it fails. 
Diagram view is facing contact pins.

<<< YELLOW Sensor 1362278: Diagram at left is for the YELLOW 1978-85 bulb failure sensor (1978-85 240, 260 and 740)
Diagram view is facing contact pins.

<<< RED Sensor 1362370: Diagram at left is for the RED 1986-93 bulb failure sensor (1986-93 240, 1986 and later 740, 780, and 1991-94 940). 
Diagram view is facing contact pins.

Bypassing a Volvo Bulb Failure Sensor
Part 3 of 3

Making some simple BYPASS LEADS for a Quick and Easy Fix.

If you don't feel like going to the trouble of modifying a Bulb Failure Sensor internally, there is a MUCH SIMPLER way to bypass these circuits without using a sensor.  And I don't mean to suggest cutting off the 15-pin plug and splicing wires together (which of course you can do if you like).  A better method, with no barbaric butchery, is to assemble some simple crimp terminals with a few short pieces of wire. Then unplug your sensor and insert the new leads into the female 15-pin connector, respective of the bypass diagrams shown below  As it turns out, this connector uses fairly common 3.5 mm bullet terminals. So all you need are some male bullet terminals and some wire and some heat-shrink tubing for insulation. Coincidentally, these 3.5 mm male terminals are available cheap on-line or also in my Harness Parts Page HERE

In the photo above, you can see how these bypass bullet terminals and wires will look. The configuration is different for different sensors, so pay attention to the diagrams. If your car uses a sensor not shown above, it will be a simple thing to open it up to see what pins are bridged.  

Tamara from Albuquerque sent the above photos for her bypass project:
"I just accomplished the bypass on the failed bulb relay on my 240. Worked like a charm! Thank you so much for all of your pains-taking work in putting together all of the detailed and supremely helpful information on your website. It is so appreciated.  I found it easier to deal with by removing the instrument cluster. That way I could get both hands on the relay and sit upright to put the bypass pieces in. I also had to lever the relay and connector apart with a screwdriver. I had fought with it for awhile to no avail then I realized some leverage was called for. It made a little click and came apart easily. That's when I discovered it had a barb holding it together.
It's great to have brake lights again!

Better and Faster Wipers


Understanding Relay Functions and Uses
 I'm putting this here because having an understanding of simple relay functions can help any DIY Volvo mechanic in so many places for your car projects.  Many of the suggestions in this 240 modification page rely on relays.  Not too many years ago my relay knowledge was limited to installing a pair of fogs lights.  The internet has helped a lot in this area and most of you can now be really successful with relays. 

This Relay Guide is not Volvo specific, but it's a great resource for expanding your general auto relay knowlege and offers some interesting diagrams.
                     https://www.davebarton.com/pdf/RelayGuide.pdf  (3.3mb PDF)

Here are some other pages with more relay explanations and configurations:

danielsternlighting.com/relays.html  <<< And this is the best site I know for improving your auto lighting with added relays.

If you know of any other useful resources that would be a good fit here, please email me. 

3-FLASH "Komfort Blinker" UPGRADE for your Volvo.
Back in 2010 I drove a late model BMW E60 M5 on a long road trip and I fell in love with the "Komfort Blinker" feature that BMW was putting in their new cars.  This feature allows you to momentarily tap the turn signal lever left or right and you get three successive flashes from your blinkers. This makes lane changes a bit nicer (assuming you care enough to use blinkers).
So I made this work for my 240.
Komfort Blinker Page is HERE:  240turbo.com/blinker.html

240 M46 Overdrive Wire Harness Design, Construction, Mods
A few years ago after the auto transmission went south in my 242 Turbo 120 miles from home (Thank you AAA for your extended towing coverage), I swore off autos and decided to retrofit an M46 (4-speed plus OD).  I'm not going into the retrofitting of an M46, but I am going to reveal the secrets of the M46 wire harness that you'll need if you ever do this in your 240 and need some wiring info.  When I began working on the swap, I found an old M46 harness in a junk yard 240.  It was in really bad condition, so I used it to construct a new one.  The PDF diagrams here are the result of my research.  Using these diagrams, you can make your own harness from scratch like I did, using a few salvage yard 240 parts, some common connectors and some wire. Some of the wire lengths mentioned in this diagram are actually a bit longer than original.  I added some when I made my new harness. 

If your car originally had an auto trans, you'll need to add one terminal to the round multipin connector on the back of your instrument cluster to power the "OD" indicator light.  There will be no terminal in that spot in an auto transmission car.  And the 4th gear ground switch in the transmission uses a common female bullet found in many places under the hood of a Volvo.  This is the female bullet with the silicone sleeve.  If that can't be found, a 3.5 mm female bullet terminal works fine.

These diagrams will also show you the differences between the 1981-84 BLUE relay and the 1985 and later RED relay system, so you may choose either harness design, since both harnesses and relays ultimately do exactly the same thing and will work on any M46 overdrive.  Or you may use these diagrams to convert from a BLUE relay to a RED relay or vice versa. 
I now offer NEW M46 Wiring Harnesses for all year 240s if you need one: 
CLICK HERE to find them in my Harness Page.

Creating an M46 OD Relay Function using Ordinary Relays
Overdrive relays might get hard to find or expensive. If you need to create a circuit that replicates an overdrive relay, you can use this below. This uses four standard SPDT (Single Pole Double Throw) relays. This type of relay will have center pin 87A. The momentary push button connects to ground and when pushed it will activate power to the 12V output, which can be connected to your OD solenoid. Another momentary push will deactivate it. Turning off the power (shutting off the car) will deactivate it also. For the 12V power to light your OD lamp in the dash, you can use power from the 12V output.

240 Auto Transmission Overdrive Wire Harness Design and Construction
Since I made the above M46 diagrams I thought it would be good to illustrate how the 240 auto trans ORANGE and WHITE overdrive relays work too.  There is almost no difference in the relay circuits between the ORANGE and WHITE relays. They are essentially interchangeable, EXCEPT that the OD light on the dash seems to come on opposite of when it's supposed to when the incorrect relay is installed.

Shifter Knob Fix (M46 or M47) Manual Transmission
If you drive a Volvo with the M-46 or M-47 manual transmission, then you will likely already know (or you will) what it's like to have the shifter knob come off in your hand during a rapid 1-2 shift.  It's very annoying, especially when it yanks the wires off of your OD switch and you have to put things back together on the side of the road.  Here's a very simple cure.

First, pull off your shifter knob and if you have OD wires, tuck them off to the side and out of the way.  Get out your drill and start by drilling a hole in the knob just like you see in the photos.  Then continue the hole into the metal shifter tube.  The hole should be just slightly smaller than the screw you decide to use.

 I used a countersink type screw, so I also drilled a shallow countersink hole in the knob.

 I screwed the screw into the tube to test how tight it would be and decided the tip of the screw was a bit too long , so I snipped it off.  I didn't want it to interfere with the wires in the tube.  The last photo shows the finished result.  That should fix it for good.

Upgrade the In-Tank Fuel Pump in your 240 with a Larger 740 Turbo Pump
The 740 Turbo pump I used for this conversion, which was used in 1986 and later 700 and 900 Turbo models (and 960), is PN 3517845

Adding a Large Tachometer to your Volvo 240 in place of the Large Clock
 This conversion info is found in my 240 Gauge Page:  240turbo.com/240gaugewiring.html

Plastic Fuel Line Repairs

Volvo used semi-rigid plastic fuel lines on all 200, 700 and 900 series.  Maybe more models, but I'll deal mainly with cars made in the 1980s and 1990s for this article below.
Special thanks goes to Roger Brown of Pueblo, Colorado for the photos and details from his own fuel line repair. The photos below are of 740 fuel lines, but the principle is the same for 240s.

You'll find that the plastic hoses used in these cars are fitted to fairly standard brass or steel barbed nipples.  Volvo fitted them when the hose or nipple or both are heated to a point the plastic becomes more flexible.  Removing these hoses from existing nipples can be difficult and you may find that cutting or slitting them at the barb is the best treatment.


Some will suggest using a hair dryer or boiling water to heat of the hose or fittings.  In Roger's project, he found that neither seemed to create enough heat to soften the black plastic hose to his satisfaction. After cutting the hose from the barb, he began by trimming it to clean new end.  The heating was done using a small butane torch he bought from Harbor Freight, although a heat gun would be a good choice. 

CAUTION needs to be inserted here when putting any flame anywhere near fuel. Please use common sense and make your repairs on clean, fuel-free hoses. 
<<< Pic 1: This first photo is where he encountered a leaking fitting bolted to the filter. Fuel was leaking past the barbed nipple on this banjo fitting, so the plastic fuel hose had become loose.  He removed the banjo bolt and metal banjo fitting from the filter.

<<< Pic 2 shows a method for releasing one of the fuel line clamps holding the fuel line to the body.

<<< Pic 3 is the leaky plastic line being removed from the banjo fitting.  The plastic fuel line is the thin black thing you can see on the barbed nipple. The fatter line is just protective insulation.

<<< Pic 4 shows a 1/4 inch brass repair fitting Roger bought to lengthen the line that was shortened by cutting (the extension was made using normal fuel injection hose).  In the photo you can see the plastic line is clamped to a jack stand for handling stability. The torch is lit and the brass repair fitting is held by needle nose pliers and ready for heating. 

<<< Pic 5:  Bingo!  After heating the brass fitting and inserting it in the plastic hose end, twisting left/right while inserting, the heated fitting slipped in past the last rib...success! 

<<< Pic 6: Fuel injection hose clamp installed on the outer hose. There would have never been one there from the factory, but iIt's there to provide some extra confidence that nothing is going to leak when finished.

<<< Here's a suggestion for a tool you can make to securely hold the fuel line in place. I found this in a different European car forum.  Using a block of wood (hardwood would be best) drill a hole through the block that is slightly smaller than the outside diameter of your plastic fuel line.  Then drill a slightly larger hole only a short depth.  This depth can be the length of the barbed nipple on one end.  You can also drill a couple small pilot holes for screws that can hold the two block halves together. Then cut the block in half, cutting through the center of the first hole.

The hose can then be clamped in this block using screws or you can clamp it in a vise.  It will help hold the line while you insert a barbed fitting. 

<<< Here's a DIY how to PDF showing how to make a fuel line tool with wood blocks. Found at Ferrari400parts.com.  The PDF can be found at:  ferrari400parts.com/replacingpalines.php.

<<< Pic 7:  Roger elected to use a 2 inch length of regular high-pressure 1/4 inch fuel injection hose that has been clamped to the banjo fitting.
The old plastic fuel line with the 1/4 inch repair fitting is ready to be inserted into the fuel injection hose. 

<<< Pic 8:  Lines are joined. Clamps tightened.

<<< Pic 10:   Engine running. Found a slight drip from one of the banjo washers, so after making a cautious 1/16" turn to snug the bolt, NO MORE LEAKS! 

Roger then reinstalled an old section of slit hose insulation as a shield for the repaired section to keep it protected from rubbing body metal.


If you can add to or help with this info, please email.

Adding a Small 52 mm VDO/Volvo Tachometer to your 240
This conversion info is found in my 240 Gauge Page: https://www.240turbo.com/240gaugewiring.html

Fixing Bad 240 Driver Door Lock Switch Wires
I have seen a fair number of emails like this one:
"I own a 1993 Volvo 240 Sedan. It has about 100,000 on it and runs beautifully. The only problem is that the central locking system seems to be malfunctioning. It makes a fast clicking sound when driving and sometimes goes up and down when one tries to unlock the other doors from the drivers side. In the past two days the battery died due to something being left on.  I pulled the #8 fuse (courtesy lights, clock, trunk light, glove box light, central lock system, power antenna, radio) and today the battery was fine."

This is an extremely common problem that literally affects ALL YEAR 240s equipped with CENTRAL DOOR LOCKING.
How do I know this problem is common in all year 240s? Because when I discovered this years ago i spent time at junkyards pulling off door panels on a lot of 240s up to the 1993 model year.  They are all the same.  All had BAD WIRES!

The problem is old, flaking wire insulation inside the driver door. Specifically, the wires going to the key lock switch ("F" in the diagram shown at left) and also the door lock plunger switch ("A" in the diagram shown at left).  It should be pretty obvious once you pull off your door panel and look closely at these wires. The insulation on these wires will crumble and fall off, allowing the wires to short. This causes the rapid lock-unlock to occur randomly. And when the car is parked, the shorted wires may allow the locks be stuck in UP or DOWN mode, which can drain your battery in a few hours.  The solution is to cover the bad wires with heat-shrink tubing, liquid electrical tape, etc., or cut them out and crimp or solder in new wires.  You will probably only have to do this to about 8 inches of wires, but  keep an eye out for more than that. 

Here are a couple good threads with more photos:


Dealing with the Temperature Compensation Board in your 1986-93 240
Temperature Compensation Board Bypass.
This info is found in my 240 Instrument Cluster Page: https://www.240turbo.com/240gaugewiring.html

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