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240 Big Brakes

     UPDATED: August 23, 2021                      CONTACT       
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This page illustrates some pretty cool brake upgrades for the Volvo 240.
Hopefully it helps you if you decide to do something similar. 
If you have done something like this for your 240, I would really like to hear about it and see some photos.
Contact me if you have comments or can help improve this page: CONTACT
240 Brake Specs
240 Brake Lines
BNE Front Brake Line Brackets

R-Brakes on a 240 (FRONT)
R-Brakes FRONT and REAR
Brake Pad Shims and Brake Squeal

Wilwood 240 Brakes
BNE Brembos for 240
RX7 Brakes
Porsche Cayenne Brakes Cadillac ATS Brakes
Dick Prince 240 Racecar Brakes
Miscellaneous Big Brakes

Some good DIY 240 brake discussions:

Before putting Big Brakes on my 240:

I owned my '84 245 Turbo for 6 years before doing the big R-caliper upgrade below.  I had plenty of experience with stock 240 brakes and pads and lots of experience trying different things to improve them.  Stock 240 brakes are OK for most "normal" driving.  In my opinion they are really not good enough in original condition for track or high-performance driving.

I was already a customer of IPD, so naturally I tried some of their brake pads over the years.  I tried the PBR Deluxe first. I discovered they had a bad tendency to fade after a few hard stops.
The fading wasn't subtle... it was really bad.

The braking came back once things cooled down.  The PBR Deluxes are really good when cold... lots of bite, and very little brake dust.  Just don't expect much out of them after when hot hard stops.

Then I tried a set of PBR Metal Masters.  These pads are designed for much heavier use.  I never got them to fade, but the cold stopping was not very good at all.  One time while on the freeway during a long road-trip, where I hadn't touched the brakes in a while and they were COLD, all the traffic in front of me came to really quick STOP.  I hit the brakes and found I had very little braking power.  I mashed the brake pedal using every bit of strength I had and I baaaaaarely stopped just a few inches from the car in front.
The Metal Masters went in the TRASH as soon as I got home!

Many years ago a fellow 240 owner, Clay Dewan, suggested Mintex (red box) pads in the photo below.  I was a skeptic, since they were inexpensive and I didn't know the brand.  I tried a set and absolutely fell in love with them.  They had great cold and WET stopping. They had excellent braking power when really hot too.  I used Mintex pads for several years and also during a number of track days. I even boiled my brake fluid at the track once and then later changed to higher-temp DOT 4 brake fluid. Even so, the Mintex pads never failed me.  I highly recommend them for your 240 if you can find them.  These used to be widely available in the U.S.A, but now It seems these pads are either no longer available or hard to find (at least for a 240).

Nowadays the internet can find almost anything. Here's a list of performance 240 brake pads, but I cannot offer any personal recommendations.

BNE Dynamics (Kaplhenke Racing) now offers Hawk performance pads for Volvo 240.

Here's a good discussion thread on performance brakes pads for 240s:

Volvo 240 FRONT 4-piston CALIPERS:
     Front caliper: 38 mm pistons x4, 1976-1993 using Girling versions.
 Left caliper for VENTILATED rotor
PN 1273430, 1330306.
 Right caliper for VENTILATED rotor PN 1273431, 1330307.
 Left caliper for NON-VENTILATED rotor PN 1221957, 1330303.
 Right caliper for
NON-VENTILATED rotor PN 1221958, 1330304.
          Be aware of early version calipers made for thinner SOLID, non-ventilated rotors.
M10 x 1.0 bubble flare (Europe) brake line ports.

Volvo 240 REAR 2-piston CALIPERS:
Rear caliper: 38 mm pistons x2. ATE or GIRLING.
 Left caliper GIRLING
PN 1229547, 1330308.
Right caliper GIRLING
PN 1229548, 1330309.
Left caliper ATE
PN 1229551.
Right caliper ATE
PN 1229552.
     M10 x 1.0 bubble flare (Europe) brake line ports.


Volvo 240 Brake Rotors:
     FRONT (early 240): 14.3 mm (0.563 inch) thick NON-VENTILATED rotor. 263 mm (10.35 inch) diameter. PN 1228942, 270737-0.
     FRONT (late 240): 24 mm (0.945 inch) thick VENTILATED rotor. 263 mm (10.35 inches) diameter. PN 1228153, 1359131, 270739-6.
 REAR:  9.6 mm (0.378 inch) thick rotor. 281 mm (11.06 inches) diameter. PN 1205782, 270736-2.

Volvo 240 Master Cylinder:
     Non-ABS tandem master cylinder has a STEPPED bore: 22.3 mm (0.878 inch) primary bore (REAR), 15.75 mm (0.62 inch) secondary bore (FRONT).
    ABS tandem master cylinder has a STEPPED bore: 22.3 mm primary bore (REAR), 19 mm secondary bore (FRONT).
M10 x 1.0 bubble flare (Europe) brake line ports.

Master Cylinder Part Numbers:
     240 non-ABS Brake line ports on left PN 8111005-8.
   240 non-ABS Brake line ports on right PN 8111006-6.
240 with ABS PN 3530972, 8251131, 8602015.
M10 x 1.0 bubble flare (Europe) brake line ports.
Vacuum Brake Servo Booster
10 inch GIRLING, black or yellow chromate, PN 1229928, 1272159, 3516654.
10 inch BENDIX DBA, galvanized gray, PN 1272159.
8 inch BENDIX DBA dual diaphragm, unpainted, PN 1229336.
8 inch GIRLING dual diaphragm, black, PN 1229493.

Volvo 240 Brake Pedal Ratio: 4:1



The Volvo Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS), beginning in 1989, was a three-channel system using a Bosch control unit to monitor and compare signals from three wheel speed sensors (one on each front wheel hub and one in the rear differential).
With ABS there is only one brake line for each front caliper, instead of two like on the earlier cars. 

Disassembling or Rebuilding a Brake Caliper
Pretty good general video (non-Volvo).

Pretty good video on disassembling a 240 front caliper. This person is discussing a modification of the caliper to change from dual circuit to single circuit front brakes.



Brake lines are a mystery for many DIY car enthusiasts, so I thought it would be a good idea to make a section on DEALING WITH 240 BRAKE LINES.

Due to the age of your car, your brake fittings are probably a bit crusty. There may be some corrosion and they may be very tight. 
Those original brake line "nuts" use an 11 mm wrench.  If you try to use a simple open end wrench on them or maybe some poor fitting adjustable wrench, you're asking for trouble.  It's very, very easy to accidentally round off the corners on those "nuts."

Buy yourself some line wrenches,
or at least buy one
11 mm line wrench. 

Then BEFORE you use your new line wrench, look closely at it.
You'll probably have one like the first or second wrench ABOVE.  Notice these wrenches have a bit of a shoulder where the wrench surface touches the fitting surface (the second one below is the worst). That shoulder will probably cause you some trouble, because it prevents the wrench from sliding on and grabbing as much of the nut surface as possible.

The BOTTOM wrench ABOVE has been MODIFIED.  I used my bench grinder to grind the surface down and flatten the shoulder on both sides.

The reason for the grinding will be easy to understand. 

In many of these circumstances you're going to have only one chance to grip this nut well enough to actually crack it loose.  If you round off the corners, you may be out of luck on that nut and you'll have to cut off the line.

  Looking at this photo BELOW, you'll need to get that wrench to slide up onto as much of that nut as possible.  If you only get the wrench partially on the edge of the nut, then the corners are going to round off and you're done. 
Grinding the wrench flat will give you a small extra bit of gripping surface between the wrench and the nut.

NEXT PROBLEM: On these fittings there are small sheet metal retaining clips.  You can see what left of one of those clips in my pliers above. Those clips can interfere with you getting your wrench onto the fitting far enough to NOT round off those corners. So if you think your fittings are going to be stubborn, you can sacrifice those clips if necessary.  They're not easy to rip off, but you can break them with some force and wiggling. 

The fitting nut on the flexible hose going upward should be held by you with an open end wrench.  It will probably be 14 mm.

Or you can do what I did in this photo below.
If you look closely you can see I just bent the wings of the clip outward a little.  That moved it out of the way so that it would no longer interfere with the wrench sliding ALL THE WAY onto the nut.

If you destroy your clips and you're not sure how to secure the brake lines when reassembling, that's what zip ties were made for.  In either circumstance it's always a good idea to look closely at your new or re-assembled brake lines and make sure there are no chances for a line to rub or vibrate against another hard surface.  I've seen brake lines vibrate enough to chaff a hole in only a few thousand miles.
Again, zip ties are your friend.


If you don't have the skills or tools to create and flare your own new brake lines, you can usually get by. 
If you need any new pre-assembled brake lines, Belmetric has a selection in the correct fitting size with a variety of lengths from 10 inches to 120 inches.

The standard brake fitting size for Volvo is 10 x 1.0 mm (ISO or DIN) Bubble Flare - "European." 
The "European" part is important, because there's a Japanese car version of this size fitting which will not fit.
Most non-Volvos will have DOUBLE FLARE brake lines. Volvos will have BUBBLE FLARES.

If by chance you find a need to join two pre-assembled lines together (maybe the lines you bought aren't long enough as one piece), you can use a BRAKE UNION.
Brake Unions are available in brass or steel in 10 x 1.0 mm Bubble Flare (Euro) at Belmetric: https://www.belmetric.com/bubble-flare-c-17_564_1107_1108/.

Brass fittings have an advantage against corrosion. Brass doesn't rust, but brass is not as strong, so stripping threads or rounding off corners is easier.
Steel fittings are strong, but can rust. Good fittings will come with corrosion resistant plating, but they can still rust over time if the environment is corrosive enough.


If you're a beginning, here's a good video to start with.


Braided stainless brake lines can improve brake system feel and pedal response because the teflon inner core will not expand under pressure like rubber lines can. These can be found for a 240 from several sources.

Most people buy pre-made flexible brake hoses, but if you have ever thought about making your own or seeing how they're made, here's a video below.

Making Up Stainless Steel Braided Brake Hoses


If you agree with me that there needs to be a better way to secure your brake lines to the front strut, then you may like the below alternative.

I ordered a pair of these brackets from BNE Dynamics (Kaplhenke Racing):

I had my struts off the car when I did this.
My cordless sawzall took the old brackets off in just a few seconds.  Then a bit of grinding with a bench grinder smoothed them nicely. 
Then some new paint and the new Kaplhenke brackets went on.
My car is happier now.

240 BIG BRAKES: Chapter 1

I began this project in December 2003 when I first purchased a set of new R (BREMBO) front calipers (made for 2004-07 S60R, V70R). 
For this installation ONLY FRONT CALIPERS were fitted to my car.  Front AND rear fitment can be seen here.

My original plan was to design a custom caliper bracket to fit these calipers onto the front of my 245.  Before I got very far, I received an email from Travis Kijowski of Strictly Volvo Racing (SVR) in Maryland. Coincidentally, he was already in the process of developing an aluminum bracket for these calipers to fit a 240 strut housing, which he would later adapt for his 940.   

I originally planed to have a 2-piece rotor set made using Wilwood hats and rotors, but when I found out about the SVR brackets, which could use the stock R rotors, and it would bolt right up to the 240 with no modifications, I put off the idea of custom rotors for a while and bought a set of S60 R calipers to save some time and money.
Keep in mind that S60R, V70R rotors mounted on a 240 will push the rotor surface about 1/2 inch further outward than factory.
I completed this project in March 2004 using Travis' caliper mounts and it turned out to be one of the best mods ever. 

2021 NOTE: 240 R Brake Adapter Kits (FRONT AND REAR) and available from STS Machining.

These calipers are LUG MOUNTED

The below LEFT image shows how these calipers are normally mounted on an S60R, V70R, FORWARD of the center hub.
The below RIGHT image shows how these calipers are mounted on a 240, BEHIND the center hub.

The R caliper is an aluminum 4-piston type made for Volvo by Brembo.  The caliper weighs 7 lbs. 6 oz. (about 3.3 kg).
This caliper has 4 pistons. Two are 42 mm diameter and two are 38 mm diameter.
This 240 configuration reverses the rotor direction in relation to the caliper,
which means the large piston, which used to be the leading piston, will become the following piston.
The piston size difference has been speculated to be designed to promote better pad wear, however a lot of theses installations have been done and no one has ever found a problem.

There are aftermarket calipers available (as of 2021) that have bleed valves on BOTH ENDS. This means that these calipers can be used on the LEFT OR RIGHT sides.

 The front R calipers will use MORE FLUID VOLUME that stock 240 brakes, but just HOW MUCH more?
240 calipers FRONT: (38 mm x 4) x2 (right+left) equals 9072 mm˛ total piston area.
R calipers FRONT: (42 mm x2 plus 38 mm x 2) x2 (right+left) equals 10090 mm˛ total piston area.
  So the FRONT R calipers combined have 11.2% more area.

My conclusion: Upgrading to a master cylinder with more volume or a larger bore is not necessary.

This installation below used the STOCK 240 (non-ABS) master cylinder.

The front rotor (also made by Brembo) is 13 inches (330.2 mm) x 1.25 inch (32 mm). 
These are quite a bit larger than the original 10 inch brakes on the 240.  The rotor weighs approximately 20 lbs (about 9 kg). 
I had the slots shown below custom machined at the cost of about $25 per rotor. 

(BELOW PHOTOS) The first photo below is the original 240 brake (RIGHT SIDE)... stock rotors (except for custom drilling/slotting).  
The second photo shows the R caliper and rotor after installation on a 240.   


This natural aluminum bracket is the first prototype bracket. It allowed the R calipers to bolt to the 240 struts tubes with no other mods.  The later versions were black anodized with laser-etched "SVR." 
These brackets weighed in at 15 oz. each (about 425 grams).  

UPDATE November 2008:  These brackets became no longer available from the above source. 
New sources may be found in my Cool Volvo Products Page.

Lots of detailed info has now been written by other people about this conversion over years and can be found in the Turbobricks Forum (https://forums.turbobricks.com/) and at the below links specifically (among others):  

The brackets from SVR were designed to allow the R caliper to be mounted in almost the same place as the stock caliper.   You can see in this pic how the R caliper is moved outward (away from the strut tube).  This was necessary so it would correctly fit the position of the R rotor, which is set further outward than the 240 rotor. 

To put this in perspective, when measuring from the (pad) surface of the rotor, the R rotor will be about 5/8 inch (about 16 mm) more outward than a stock 240 rotor.  
The outside face of the larger R caliper will be about 24mm (just under an inch) further outward than a stock 240 caliper.

The stock sheet metal brake backing plates were useless for this upgrade and went in the trash.

Notice that you only need ONE brake line per wheel instead of two brake lines as my car originally had.

Front R CALIPERS. Volvo PN 8602682 (right) and PN 8602683 (left)
  Front R ROTORS. Volvo PN 30645222 (same left or right).  The grooves in mine were custom.

The SPRING CLIPS/RETAINERS are Volvo PN 30645137 (2 sets required).

VOLVO front brake pads are PN 30645135 or 30748957. I opted for EBC GREEN STUFF pads on front instead, PN DP21210

Minimum of Grade 10.9 hex head or 12.9 black socket head is recommended.

Metric Bolt 12 x 1.75 mm x 40 mm (4 required)

Metric Bolt 12 x 1.75 mm x 60 mm (4 required)

Hardened 12 mm washers recommended (8 needed)

Brake Junction Block Plugs, Volvo PN 1387506 (2 required).

You'll notice two new metal hard brake lines in the below picture (about 12 inches long). 
These pre-made hard lines were used to replace the original copper hard lines going from the calipers to the flexible lines (I already had stainless front flex lines that I bought from iPd years before, so I used one of those for ea
ch side). 

The old original 240 hard lines can be re-use
d, but I found the brass end fittings often become damaged when removed if they're tight, so I decided to buy new ones. 
FCP Groton
used to carry them (PN AA0320), but they seem to no longer have them.
A variety of lengths of pre-made correct hard lines can still be found at Belmetric: https://www.belmetric.com/475mm-brake-line-with-ends-c-17_186_1168/

NOTE Regarding Brake Shims and Brake Squeal:
Some people have had trouble with brake squeal with these front calipers. Many have complained that they find it impossible to locate brake pad shims, like those shown above. The above shims came with the factory pads I bought back in 2004.
I used EBC Green Stuff pads with the shown shims. I never had brake squeal noise.
But for those who need help, this info below may help.

Back in 2004 when I was researching these calipers and available brake pads. Brembo lists this caliper as their type "B62" or "62" family.
I found that the same Brembo B62 FRONT calipers and pads were used in some other cars.
2004 Subaru Impreza STI (2004-17)
2004 Mitsubishi Evo (2003-15)
2004 Alfa Romeo (I can't recall the model, but I recall it was available in Europe and NOT in the U.S.).
And others.

So there may be BRAKE PAD SHIMS available for these other cars which will work, such as this for the STI:


And there's MORE. I found the below FRONT PAD image in an EBC Racing Pad catalog:

Also Volvo had a campaign at one time to combat brake squeal complaints in the R calipers. This image below is Volvo PN 30748514 Anti-Vibration Damper Set. They mount between the caliper and mounting bolt heads.

If you also need to find alternative vehicles using the S60R REAR pads, this image below is used by Hawk brake pads sites for the S60R REAR pads.
The rear Brembo calipers used by Volvo were the Brembo B11.

So it appears there are some Lotus, Jaguar, Mustang and Viper models using the same Brembo calipers.


Here are the S60R REAR pads from the EBC Racing Pad catalog.

for Front R-Brakes

First lets see the ORIGINAL FACTORY SETUP:
The 240 non-ABS brake junction block shown here has 8 ports. This first photo below illustrates the original 240 brake line
configuration when using the original 240 front caliper in my '84 240, which originally used two brake lines per front caliperThe front Brembo R calipers use only one line per caliper.  For this conversion, two of the front caliper ports on the junction block will need to be plugged.

This is how I originally did this back in 2004 when installing these 'R' brakes on my '84 245. 

As you can see, I
simply removed one front brake line from the right side and one from the left. I then PLUGGED the two empty holes.

This method worked fine for years. I did receive some grief from a few 240 enthusiasts who felt it was unsafe. They felt that if one front caliper suddenly lost pressure, hitting the brakes would shoot the car off to one side out of control and it would be a disaster.  I suppose it's possible, so use caution and you're own judgement.

Jacob (who installed Porsche Cayenne calipers) also used and recommended this method in his brake instructions. 
As far as I know so far, no one has done it differently and THIS conversion has been done MANY TIMES over the years.

MODIFIED ALTERNATE 1A (photo not shown): 
If you're OK with Alternate 1, but are shaking in your booties about the potential problem mentioned above, this may be a solution.  This method uses the same configuration shown in Alternate 1, except for one change.  As shown in Alternate 3, remove the inner piston assembly. This will convert the two-chamber junction block into a one-chamber block.  Any fear of the car shooting off left or right should be gone now.  Be aware that if you lose pressure now, you just lose all brakes.  So choose your poison. 
I have not tried this method and to my knowledge no one else has either.

Plastic Sender:
 If you remove the inner piston, I think it might be a good idea to remove the plastic sender and plug that hole with a metal plug.  The internal pressures may be too much for the plastic sender after removing that piston assembly. Not sure. Just saying

More on this is discussed a little bit below.

This is how it was recommended to me by some people who had were scared of Alternate 1.  If you choose to do it this way, you will need to either bend the existing brake lines to fit (if it's possible) or make new ones.  This is very similar to how the ABS cars were plumbed.  Keep in mind that if you're using a non-ABS master cylinder, the fluid volume coming from the front and rear ports might be different, since the front port comes from a 15.75 mm piston and the rear port gets fed by a 22.3 mm piston. 

I have not tried this method and I don't know if anyone has, including the people who recommended it. 

The safety aspect is as follows:  If pressure is lost somewhere, then you will lose either front brakes or rear brakes, but not all of them at once.

I would certainly appreciate some feedback if you have done an R brake conversion.  What method did you use?

This is a proposal for those of you who would choose Alternate 2, but would like to eliminate any problem mentioned above. 

I have not tried this method and to my knowledge no one else has either.

That inner piston separates the two chambers, but is designed to freely move forward or rearward depending on brake pressure differentials.  By removing the piston, the junction block is converted to a one-chamber block, instead of two.  Be aware that having a one-chamber junction block means that if any part of the brake system looses pressure, then all of it will. 

Plastic Sender:

If you remove the inner piston, I think it might be a good idea to eliminate the plastic sender.  There's a lot of pressure in there and I don't know if trusting a plastic sender is the best idea.  The thread for this port is M12 x 1.0.  There are fittings available with M12 x 1.0 thread, but all I have found so far are JIC or AN fittings with a flared sealing end.  If you look under that white plastic piece inside the port, it's just a flat bottom with a small hole in the center, so a flared fitting will not seal there.  There is, however, a chamfer for an o-ring, which is what the factory sender uses to seal. So I think there is a good chance of creating a seal using a M12 x 1.0 o-ring fitting. 

If you do something like this with your project, please email me. I'd like to know.


If you want a brake junction block without the warning sender, look for Volvo PN 3540084 from a 1991 240.  It will operate as two separate junction blocks with no shared internal port.

You may want to consider re-configuring your brake lines to use a proportioning valve like this one. It's a bigger step. 
You can read all about this at https://www.240turbo.com/volvo240bigbrakes.html#proportioning

WHEEL SIZE IS CRITICAL with these big brakes:
When planning an upgrade
like this it is very important to carefully consider the need for larger wheels AND more room to the outside of the original brakes.  As far as wheel diameter, if you use these 13 inch rotors, there are some 17 inch wheels that still will not clear.  The wheel shown in these pics are 18 inch. 

So far I know the 17 inch Volvo R wheels will clear just fine and I have been told the Volvo Tethys also. Both are FWD type wheels and will need custom spacers to fit a 240 properly.

The popular EIKER (Polaris replica) is 17 inches and WILL NOT FIT because the caliper hits the inner wheel barrel.

The outside surface of the new, larger R caliper will be further outboard (in the direction of the wheel spokes).  My measurements show them to be about 24 mm further outboard when compared to the stock 240 caliper.  So if your wheel spokes are already close to your original front calipers, you will either need new wheels or some wheel spacers to move them outward.  Many more discussions from others who have worked out this installation can be found in the Turbobricks forum.


For braking to be effective when you get near the limit, you need a pretty good balance between the front and rear.  If any brakes begin to prematurely lock up
, it is preferred for the front brakes to lock just slightly before the rear brakes.  When I tested these brakes initially with no adjustments or changes to the front/rear bias (which included a track day at Thunderhill Raceway in May 2004),  I found the front brakes had a little too much strength and would easily lock if I wasn't careful.  This required some concentration and discipline at track speeds.  I found if I was gentle on the pedal I could prevent it, but still it needed to be improved.  For a better balanced setup out of the box, I suppose anti-lock brakes work nice at leveling things, but adding ABS to my 240 wasn't an option I wanted. 

If I were to use dual master cylinders with a balance bar, the imbalance could have been solved with an easy adjustment, except it would have been expensive and it would eliminate the power assist.  My first thought was to remove the rear brake reduction valves (to increase rear brake bias) and then install a custom single rear line with an adjustable proportion valve to regulate rear pressure.  So I did the first step and removed the rear reduction valves. 

After the reduction valves were removed, I needed some way to re-connect the brake lines and found that a standard early 1980's 240 junction block (shown in photo) worked perfectly in place of the reduction valves.  It fits like it could have been made to go there.  Four of the open ports on the block needed to be plugged (so four more brass plugs were needed).

After testing the brakes without the rear reduction valves, I discovered the front/rear bias was nearly perfect for a wagon.  Much better than expected.   I now have a very nice front/rear balance which takes full advantage of the improved brake system.  Much stronger front brakes (because they're so damn big) and stronger rear brakes also (since removing the reduction valves).

So now we know this can work for a 245.  What about a 242? 
....After Doug Kauer (Hank Sporpio) did his R brake install on his 242, he then tried this method above and found the result to be perfect for his car: https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=22183.

Yes, many mods like these can be considered amateur, but many Volvo owners have greatly improved the performance of their cars over the years through such experiments.  This isn't the end-all solution and it might not be for you, but for the money, it was one of the best modifications I have ever done to any Volvo.  I want to thank Travis Kijowski at Strictly Volvo Racing for designing and producing the caliper brackets.  They turned out very nice. 

If you do a mod like this (or do it differently), I would like to hear about your results.

Experimentation is the key to improving modifications.
Here is an R caliper installation that was done a little differently and the results.

-from Matt Dupuis (added 07-16-06)
Here's some feedback on my conversion, and what I've done differently than (I think) everyone else:

The piston dimensions on the S60R calipers when mounted on a P2 car (S60R) are 34 mm for the leading piston and 38 mm for the trailing one.  For a staggered piston design to work as designed, the trailing piston must always be larger than the leading piston.  This is done on calipers with long pads to keep the pad twist under control and to keep the pad wear (and heat) even across the length of the pad.

It occurred to me later that the P2 chassis has the calipers mounted in front of the axle centerline, and that the leading (smaller) pistons would be on the top, and on the same end of the caliper as the bleed nipples.  When rotating them around to the rear of the axle centerline, as on the 240 chassis, the smaller piston would remain the leading piston.  This would be the correct way to installed them, however it places the bleed nipples pointing straight down.  Furthermore, the high pressure line, as it comes out the caliper, would also be angled down, making it difficult to route the line away from the suspension control arm.

I pondered these problems when I was doing my installation, and attempted removing of the blanking plugs from the trailing side of the caliper to move the bleed nipples to that side so they'd be pointing up.  They would NOT come out.  I tried heat, I tried chemicals (thread unlocker), and I tried force.  Eventually I stripped a couple of the plugs' socket hexes (not to mention the paint from around one of the plugs with my propane torch), so I gave up trying to move them.

I came to the conclusion that I'm only going to need to bleed these brakes once or twice, so I might as well remove the calipers and hang them "upside down" from the struts to bleed them.  I shoved a piece of metal between the pads to keep them from compressing, and bungee'd them to the spring, and they bled out just perfectly.

As far as the brake hose issue, I solved this by using a regular 240 hose and hose-to-caliper hardline.  The hardline threads into the caliper properly, and allows one to quickly bend upwards and clamp to the strut (being removable is necessary, so the caliper can be removed and bled again if needed).

And to my pleasure, these calipers fit just fine behind a Volvo Tethys wheel when using a 25mm spacer.  They're not very visible back there behind all those spokes, but they fit just fine.

I used Hawk pads for an Subaru STi as Hawk doesn't list them for the R, or at least they didn't when I bought the pads (The STi Brembo caliper shares the pad dimensions with these calipers).   I'm not sure if I'd use them again - they squeal when lightly applied and the dust is pretty dark, and on the Tethys the dust accumulates quite quickly. 

So far they're the most confidence-inspiring brakes I've ever driven.  I'm not 100% happy with the balance yet - the fronts are too powerful, even though:
a) my car's not lowered;
b) my car's got a heavy V8 in the nose; and
c) I removed the rear brake limiting valves, but boy does the car stop! 
I do prefer a bit more rear bias, and I don't spend any time on a road course, so I imagine I'm not the utmost authority on brake setup, but I wish I had a bit stronger rear brakes.  Next step MIGHT be converting to different rear calipers... maybe Rs and vented rotors as well?

As a follow-up to Matt's submission above...
On the subject of Potential Uneven Pad Wear due to the offset piston sizes and reversed calipers....  I pulled and inspected my Green Stuff pads after a few years of use and found nothing that suggested they were wearing unevenly.  Also, of all the other people running R calipers in the wrong direction on 240's, so far I have heard of no abnormal or uneven pad wear.... just great braking!  Take this for whatever it's worth, but I suspect the issue is not a big one. 

And a side note regarding comments I have read about EBC Green Stuff pads after I bought them.  I read several forum posts supposedly written by  "experienced" people, who said the Green Stuff pads were "horrible" because they were not aggressive enough for the track, but too aggressive for the street.  I have found after a few years with these pads (with some very aggressive track days) that I completely disagree with their opinions.  These pads have worked great for me.  No squealing, great stopping when cold, no fading when hot, and very little dust!  And others have since reported that Hawk pads are horrible when they get a little wet.  I haven't seen this problem with EBC Green Stuff.  And Hawks, as it turns out, are considerably more expensive than EBC pads.  My considered opinion is that Green Stuff works fine in this combination.
- Dave B.

240 Front R BRAKES: Chapter 2

2006 Update: Wilwood 2-piece front rotors added to front R-Brakes.
I wanted to upgrade to a two piece Wilwood rotor assembly, so I had the above pictured 2-piece rotor set made up. 
It was done by Todd Cook at TCE Performance Products in Tempe, Arizona, http://tceperformanceproducts.com.

And since a custom hat/rotor combo means that I could alter the rotor offset (within limits of course), I decided it was time to move the rotors inward .500" (1/2 inch).  This would give me broader wheel options in the future.  This is where the modified caliper adapters below came into play.  I had the raised pads on the adapters shaved .500" (1/2 inch) where they meet the caliper.  The other areas you see where aluminum was removed were necessary to clear portions of the caliper body. 

You may compare the first photo below (original SVR caliper mount bracket) to the second one showing the modified SVR bracket in place, which moved the caliper inward 1/2 inch. 

Now you might ask... If I could move the calipers inward 1/2 inch, then why not move them in further?  As mentioned above, there are limits.  The limiting factor with the 240 is the steering arm, which is normally less than 1/2 inch from the stock rotor.  That's about where my new setup put the Wilwood rotor. 

240 R-Brakes

2021 NOTE: 240 R Brake Adapter Kits (FRONT AND REAR) and available in the U.S. from STS Machining.

The below photos show a 240 Turbo owned by Aris from Greece. This car is featured in my Favorite Modified 240 Page
It has been fitted with FRONT and REAR S60R (Brembo) calipers and rotors.
WHEEL SIZE: Aris uses 18 inch wheels with these brakes. These big brakes will normally require at least 17 inch wheels.

Here are the rear calipers in place. The rear dust shields got some minor trimming near the top of the caliper.


The below LEFT image shows how these calipers are normally mounted on an S60R, V70R, FORWARD of the center hub.
The below RIGHT image shows how these calipers are mounted on a 240, BEHIND the center hub.

The FRONT R caliper is an aluminum 4-piston type made for Volvo by Brembo.  The caliper weighs 7 lbs. 6 oz. (about 3.3 kg).
This caliper has 4 pistons. Two are 42 mm diameter and two are 38 mm diameter.

This configuration reverses the rotor direction in relation to the caliper,
which means the large piston, which used to be the leading piston, will become the following piston.
The piston size difference has been speculated to be designed to promote better pad wear, however a lot of theses installations have been done and no one has ever found a problem.

There are aftermarket calipers available (as of 2021) that have bleed valves on BOTH ENDS. This means that these calipers can be used on the LEFT OR RIGHT sides.

The below LEFT image shows how these calipers are normally mounted on an S60R, V70R, FORWARD of the axle.
The below RIGHT image shows how these calipers are mounted on a 240, BEHIND the axle.

This caliper has 4 pistons. Two are 28 mm diameter and two are 30 mm diameter.
This configuration reverses the rotor direction in relation to the caliper,
which means the smaller piston, which used to be the leading piston, will become the following piston.

There are aftermarket calipers available (as of 2021) that have bleed valves on BOTH ENDS. This means that these calipers can be used on the LEFT OR RIGHT sides.

The FRONT rotor, also made by Brembo, is 13 inches (330.2 mm) x 1.25 inch (32 mm). 
The REAR rotor, also made by Brembo, is 13 inches (330.2 mm) x 1.1 inch (28 mm).

The S60R rear brake rotor has no provision for a parking brake. So the 240 parking brake function is retained by using the drum portion of a standard rear 240 rotor with the disc area machined off.
Then the new rotor is placed over the 240 drum. In the photo below, Aris has also mounted a wheel adapter.  

Standard wheel stud length normally protrudes out about 25 mm.
Adding the new rear rotor to the drum will reduce that length by about 5 mm.

Aris installed this 740 master cylinder in his 240.

This is Volvo PN 1273243 or 1359693, 1986-88 740 without ABS, 1991 940 without ABS. This MC has a stepped bore very similar to the 240 MC.
STEPPED bore: 22.225 mm (0.875 inch) primary bore (REAR), 15.875 mm (0.625 inch) secondary bore (FRONT).
    M10 x 1.0 bubble flare (Europe) brake line ports.

The front and rear R calipers will use MORE FLUID VOLUME that stock 240 brakes, but just HOW MUCH more?
240 caliper FRONT: (38 mm x 4) x2 (right+left) equals 4536 mm
˛ area per caliper. 9072 mm˛ total area.
240 caliper REAR:
(38 mm x 2) x2 (right+left) equals 2278 mm˛ area per caliper. 4536 mm˛ total area.

R caliper FRONT: (42 mm x2 plus 38 mm x 2) x2 (right+left) equals 5045 mm
˛ area per caliper. 10090 mm˛ total area.
R caliper REAR: (30 mm x2 plus 28 mm x2 rear) x2 (right+left) equals 2645 mm˛ area per caliper. 5290 mm˛ total area.
 So the FRONT R calipers combined have 11.2% more area.
The REAR R calipers combined have 16.6% more area.
Piston Diameter to Area Calculator: https://coolconversion.com/geometry/circle/area/

11.2% MORE AREA for FRONT?  16.6% MORE AREA for REAR?
This means that if you think you need to use a bigger master cylinder with more volume, it may not need to be much larger at all.

If the brake system is divided up into one FRONT system and one REAR system (which you will see in the next section), then we can calculate the volume differences more accurately. If I were giving advise, I would tell you to try the 240 MC first. If the MC seems too small (too much pedal travel), then you can start looking for an alternative.  

For this example, let's use the 240 MC. We'll use the REAR bore (22.3 mm) for the FRONT brakes only. A 22.3 mm piston has an area of 390.6 mm˛.
Then we'll assume the 240 MC FRONT bore (15.75 mm) feeds the REAR brakes only.
A 15.75 mm piston has an area of 194.8 mm˛.

Some people have recommended a Ford Mustang GT MC for this brake conversion, which has a piston size of 1.0625 inch (27 mm). The 240 MC with its stepped bore (22.3 and 15.75 mm) can be said to have an average area of 292.7 mm˛ (390.6 mm˛ + 194.8 mm˛ ÷ 2 = 292.7 mm˛). Using this info, this means a Mustang MC with a piston area of 572.6 mm˛ looks really big.

Let's divide this Mustang MC into FRONT and REAR as if we're dividing it with a proportioning valve.
A 27 mm Mustang MC piston has an area of 572.6 mm˛.
Feeding the FRONT brakes, the Mustang MC provides 46.6% more volume over the 22.4 mm 240 piston.
Feeding the REAR brakes, the Mustang MC provides 93.9% more volume over the 15.75 mm 240 piston. Yikes!
That much volume increase could make for a very hard pedal, which could require too much leg effort. 

So let's say we're going to use a different master cylinder with a bore of 24 mm (0.945 inch). Same bore front and rear.
A 24 mm piston has an area of 452.6 mm˛.
This would provide a 15.9% increase of area for the FRONT calipers compared to the 240 MC.
 It would provide a 32% increase of area for the REAR calipers compared to the 240 MC.
So one can argue that even a 24 mm MC could be too big for a front/rear R brake conversion, although it might be hard to notice much difference.

Aris reports that the brake pedal in his 240 using the above 740 MC is very good and needs no improvement.

 Aris eliminated the original brake junction block and in its place installed a Wilwood Adjustable Proportioning Valve, PN 260-11179.

Since this Wilwood valve uses 3/8-24 Inverted Flare (same as Double Flare) and the original brake lines had fittings threaded in 10 x 1.0 mm Bubble Flare, he cut the lines and re-flared them to a double flare using 3/8-24 brake line nuts for the lines going to this valve. The Volvo brake lines
are the correct size for this valve and do not need to be changed or replaced unless you really want to. 

Here's a diagram below showing the brake line routing.
Using the smaller front bore from the MC for the rear calipers was a good choice. The rear calipers need less fluid volume than the fronts.

Since an early 240 has two lines going to the rear calipers (through factory reduction valves), Aris removed the reduction valves and re-configured the lines to one line going to a junction near the rear end, which then splits to both rear calipers.


Wilwood Front Caliper Adapter Kit
by Avalanche Performance

This kit is no longer available.

  In 2010 Avalanche Performance Technologies came out with a 240 adapter kit for installing Wilwood racing calipers and rotors on the front of a Volvo 240. 
This chapter will show an installation on my 1984 242 Turbo.

This brake kit was designed to offer an inexpensive solution for 240 owners who wanted larger brakes. While less expensive than the R-brake conversion, it also allowed for more wheel options, since this brake package fits inside smaller wheels than the R-brake with 13 inch rotors. 

Referring to the photo BELOW, the Avalanche kit came with two custom aluminum caliper adapters with mounting bolts, two custom aluminum hats, and the brake line pieces which go from the caliper to the flexible line junction at the strut tube.
Also included were two plugs for the brake line junction block. 

Here are the calipers (left and right respectively) bolted up to the adapters. 

These calipers are LUG MOUNTED

I used the following Wilwood items:

  CALIPERS: WILWOOD Forged Billet Superlite
(FSL), model WW120-7431R and WW120-7431L
(These parts numbers now obsolete)

Four pistons, 1.38 inch (35 mm) bore
Made for 1.25 inch (32 mm) thick rotor. 
For detailed info on this caliper, click here to search the Wilwood page or click here for the Wilwood FSL pdf.
The brake line port on this caliper is threaded 1/8" x 27 NPT (female).

Made for any Wilwood 12.19 x 1.25 inch (309 x 32 mm) rotor with 8 bolts, 7 inch circle. 
I opted for Wilwood Ultralite 32 fin curved vane rotors, PN 1602894 (right) and PN 1602895 (left).

These brake lines were constructed as follows:
90 degree fitting, 1/8 inch x 27 NPT male at the caliper to female on other end (Wilwood calipers use 1/8 NPT brake ports).
Adapter: Straight 1/8 inch x 27 NPT male to
3/8 inch x 24 double flare female brake fitting.
3/16 inch brake line (4.75 mm).

3/8 x 24 brake nut with double flare.
Other end to Flex hose: Standard Volvo 10 x 1.0 mm bubble flare male (Europe).
Flex hose (one per side), stainless braided, 10 x 1.0 mm bubble flare (Europe) female on both ends.

BRAKE LINE NOTE: You may use 3/16 inch brake lines for all Volvo 240 applications.  Metric brake lines in this size are 4.75 mm. 3/16 inch equals 4.76 mm.
FITTING NOTE regarding 10 x 1.0 mm Bubble Flares: Make sure you get fittings that are designated as 10 x 1.0 mm EUROPEAN Bubble Flare. There are JAPANESE 10 x 1.0 Bubble Flare fittings out there, which will not fit.
A good source for correct Volvo fittings: Belmetric www.belmetric.com/bubble-flare.

NOTE ABOUT ADAPTERS: Constructing brake lines using multiple adapters is not always the best solution. 
In a perfect world, this caliper would have come with standard Volvo 10 x 1.0 mm bubble flare ports. They don't. Whenever possible, do some careful research with an effort to keep adapters to a minimum. This adapter setup uses what was originally recommended by Wilwood, however more adapters can introduce more chances for leaks.

If you search, you will find that there are adapters which will adapter a 1/8 x 27 NPT port DIRECTLY to 10 x 1.0 mm bubble flare.
For example, here are some made for VW by Empi:
Empi 18-1107 90 Deg Male 1/8" NPT to Female 10mm X 1.0 Bubble Flare https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07979K5TH.
Empi 18-1102 Straight Male 1/8" NPT to Female 10mm X 1.0 Bubble Flare https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0748NNSZR.

This Wilwood caliper uses the below Wilwood pads.  I read up on the pad compounds in Wilwood's site and chose the BP-10 Smart Pad (formerly called PolyMatrix D), which I believed to be a good choice for the mostly street use.

Avalanche didn't supply rotor to hat fasteners, so I ordered Wilwood socket head bolts, 5/16" x 24, PN 230-0150 (8 pieces with washers, 2 sets needed).

I cannot over-emphasize the importance of test fitting parts like these before committing yourself to the full installation. 
The first thing I found (I expected this would happen) was that the brake backing plate interfered with the new adapter and caliper.  The main interference was found near the bottom of the adapter bracket. 

Trimming the backing plate is a solution, but I chose to remove it instead. 
The hub needs to be removed to get the backing plate off.  This photo below show the backing plate already removed.  This will be a good opportunity to re-grease the bearings.  Also, the rubber seal on the inside end of the spindle would be a good thing to replace, since they are cheap and still available. 

Here I'm test-fitting the caliper bracket after the backing plate was removed.   


Here's something to be cautious of. 

If you're using caliper mounting bolts that have an un-threaded shoulder (like the original Volvo bolt in this photo), check to make sure the bolt threads all the way in.  I've seen more than one type on cars from the factory.

The kit came with a washer to use here between the bolt and adapter (this is important when bolting aluminum), but since the adapter bracket is a little thinner than the original 240 caliper mounting arm, the bolt would not seat completely. 
Simple fix: One additional washer was needed. 

Here is a snag that stopped my installation.
  I knew ahead of time that there could be interference between the deep spokes on the Eiker (Polaris replica) wheel and the Wilwood caliper. There WAS interference. 

In this photo below, I did another fit test by placing an 8 mm spacer behind the wheel to move the wheel away from the caliper, which then allowed a comfortable clearance distance of about 1.5 to 2 mm between the wheel and caliper. So these wheels would not fit a 240 with this kit, unless the wheels were spaced outward about 8 mm.  A 240 wheel stud normally protrudes about 25 mm out and the nut will engage about 15 mm of thread on the stud. Using an 8 mm spacer would reduce that engagement too much.  Longer wheel studs would have been a solution. 



I then bought different wheels, which had a bit more room behind the spokes.
These are also 17 x 7.5 inches. 

More Big Brake Conversions
Wilwood Caliper Adapter and Rotor Hat Kit by Kevin Hawkinson.  A VERY SIMILAR kit to the above Wilwood kit.
This kit shown was being offered at one time in the below Turbobricks thread.

BREMBO Four Piston 240 Front Caliper Adapter Kit
from BNE Dynamics (Kaplhenke Racing).
Includes new calipers and adapters for your choice of rotor diameters: 286 x 26 mm / 302 x 26 mm / 316 x 28 mm rotor options to fit under a number of differently sized Volvo wheels.  
This caliper keeps the stock 240 sized 38 mm piston diameters, so that there is no need to upgrade your master cylinder.

These calipers are LUG MOUNTED

More info in the TB Discussion Thread: https://forums.tbforums.com/showthread.php?p=6162206

The brake conversion below was originally introduced by DVS Performance Parts in Australia at http://www.dvs.net.au.
The conversion uses an adapter bracket, a front caliper from an 86-91 Mazda RX7 Turbo II, GXL, GTU or convertible (5 stud wheels).
11.25" diameter (22 mm thick) rotor from a Volvo 7/9 seriesSupposedly this adaptation will fit inside most 15 inch wheels, although a small (~5 mm) spacer may be needed for a 240 Turbo (15 inch Virgo) wheel. 
Additional discussion about this can be found at
An RX7 kit may be found in the USA at https://yoshifab.com/store/rx7-brake-adapter-bracket-kit.html

In January 2013 I received an interesting email from Willy Reerink in the Netherlands.
Hello Dave,
I am working on the ultimate Volvo 240 to Mazda RX7 brake upgrade. My story is as follows:
In 2011 I bought a Ford Taunus dragrace car in Sweden and bringing it to the Netherlands where I live. As the car was built in Sweden they used Volvo 240 spindles and calipers. But when the car was built years ago it was much slower then with its current engine. I bought it with a 1.000 HP Chevy Small Block engine in it. It never raced with this engine and brakes. Last year we made the first runs, and brakes seemed not to do anything at all. So I first overhauled the brakes, and used ECB race pads. Brakes work now but the car is reaching 250 kph (156 MPH) and that makes braking even more exciting then accelerating!
Anyway, I looked for a brake upgrade and decided that to me the best solution was the RX7 upgrade. Cheap, easy to mount, and much lighter then the 240 ones.
I am still working on it because I do encounter some problems and I am not a mechanic. I do this for the first time.
But I can make a good comparison. The Volvo 240 ones did have just enough capacity to stop the Taunus, but nothing left (I prefer braking with the chute now). So lets see what happens this summer when the RX7 brakes are installed and how they manage high speeds. We will see.
You can follow my brake upgrade on my blog at:  http://turbotaunus.wordpress.com/brake-upgrade/

Added 2021
The below Porsche Caye
nne 17Z front and rear big brake conversion kit for 240 is now available at BNE Dynamics (Kaplhenke Racing).


Porsche Cayenne Calipers on a 240

July 2013, by Jacob (Kansas, USA).
Here's a great looking adaptation of Porsche Cayenne brake calipers on a 1990 240 Owned by Jacob H. in Kansas.

Jacob's Cayenne brake thread: https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=281934
Jacob's 240 build thread: https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=219119

Front calipers: 17Z left and right 6-piston calipers from a circa 2004-10 Porsche Cayenne / VW Touareg / Audi Q7 Models using large 330 x 32 mm front rotors.
This caliper has a staggered piston design. Pistons are 34 mm, 36 mm and 38 mm (6238 mm˛ piston area per caliper).
This caliper has 37.5% more piston area than a 240 front caliper.

Rear calipers: 17Z left and right 4-piston calipers from same vehicle using 330 x 28 mm rear rotors.
This caliper has a staggered piston design. Pistons are 28 mm and 30 mm (2645 mm
˛ piston area per caliper).
This caliper has 16.1% more piston area than a 240 rear caliper.

Master Cylinder: PN 130.61062, 1994+ Mustang GT with 1.0625" (27 mm) bore.
One 12 x 1.0 mm ISO port and one 10 x 1.0 mm ISO port.
In comparison, the stock 240 master cylinder has a 22.3 mm rear bore and 15.75 mm front bore.

Rotors: Standard Volvo S60R (Brembo), 330 x 32 mm front and 330 x 28 mm rear.

Pads: OEM style Pagid pads were used in this project.

These calipers are LUG MOUNTED

REAR CALIPER and adapter.
Because of the staggered piston sizes on these calipers (similar to the Volvo R calipers) and the fact that on the Cayenne they were originally mounted on the front of the rotors (and these are going behind them on the Volvo), Jacob flipped the crossover pipes and bleeder screws to swap them. Having the staggered pistons in the proper order will eliminate a potential for uneven pad wear.

FRONT CALIPER and adapter.

Front caliper in place.

This is the drum portion of a stock 240 rear rotor.

The disc part has been cut away.  This drum is placed on the hub, then the S60R rear rotor is placed on. This will retain the stock 240 parking brakes. 

Rear rotor in place over parking brake drum.

This larger bore master cylinder is from a 1994+ Mustang GT. 
These 6 piston calipers need more fluid volume to move the brakes than the stock calipers do.  A stock master cylinder would be inadequate and would create a longer pedal travel. 

This MUSTANG master
cylinder seems to be a fairly popular one for people looking for a larger bore. It can be found as Ford PN 130.61062, Centric PN 13061062 or Dorman PN M390185.
It has a piston bore of 1.0625 inch (27 mm). The front and rear bore are the same.
Rear port is M10 x 1.0 mm bubble flare, so the Volvo brake line fits that.
Front port is M12 x 1.0 mm bubble flare so an adapter or new flare is needed.

Search for Brake Line Thread Adapter, Male M12 x 1 Bubble, Female M10 x 1 Bubble: Here's one:

Also if you don't care for the strange looking reservoir, a stock Volvo reservoir can be fitted to this MC. 
This link discusses that:

To fit this master cylinder properly, the push rod on the original booster needed to be extended approximately 0.8 inch so the rod touches the MC when the brake pedal is at rest in full rearward position.

Jacob's Cayenne brake thread: https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=281934
Jacob's 240 build thread: https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=219119
Adapter kits:  https://www.bneshop.com/collections/240/products/240-brembo-17z-adapters

Cadillac ATS Brembo front calipers on a 240

By Edison Bender, November 2014
This adaptation uses Cadillac ATS front 4-piston calipers and 13 inch rotors from an S60R/V70R.  It will fit with most 17 inch wheels. An advantage of this caliper is that they are only about $120 each new.  The calipers may be purchased from various OEM suppliers and even Rock Auto  has them under the AC Delco brand.  They use the same brake pads as the S60R/V70R, STI or Evo, which uses 4-piston Brembos. 

The adapter brackets have been custom made and are available in the below link.
Turbobricks thead and purchase info:

These calipers are LUG MOUNTED

Dick Prince 240 Race Car Brakes
This information was compiled many years ago, but it's certainly still useful. Dick Prince in Australia included a lot of useful data, which went into the making of his racing 240 brake system.
Certainly some will be of no use for a street car, but that's OK.
Click here for his page: http://www.ovlov.net/page.php?page_name=brakes

Volvo 740 front hubs to receive rotor hats.
2 x DBA069 Mustang rotors 330mm x 28mm (left and right hand).
2 x AP Racing 6-piston calipers CP5570.
17mm thick competition disc pads.
2 x machined alloy caliper mounting bars from Brunton Engineering.
2 x 5/8" ID Girling master cylinders and reservoirs.
Clutch master cylinder with integral fluid reservoir.
Balance bar and adjuster cable.
Removal of factory split circuit brake lines and proportioning valves.
Modifications to Volvo pedal box (brake pedal ratio changed: 4:1 to 4.5:1).

Volvo brake upgrade calculations:
Car plus driver = 1250kg.
Static weight distribution: 55% front = 690kg, 45% rear = 560kg.
Braking at 0.9g with vehicle centre of gravity 0.5m above road, produces a rotational moment about the tyre contact patch of 0.9 x 1250 x 0.5 = 560kg.m.
For Volvo wheelbase of 2.77m this creates a weight transfer of 560/2.77 = 205kg, that is +205kg at front axle, -205kg at rear axle.
Front axle load under 0.9g stop = 690 (static) + 205 = 895kg or 447.5kg/wheel.
Rear axle load under 0.9g stop = 560 (static) - 205 = 355kg or 177.5kg/wheel.
Tyre radius (Yokohama A032R, 245x45/17) = 0.32m (approx. 12.8").
Front brake torque required = wheel load x 0.9g x tyre radius, = 447.5 x 0.9 x 0.32 = 129kg.m (approx. 930 ft.lb).
Competition disc pad coefficient of friction = 0.45 approx.
Rotor O/D = 330mm Approx. radius to centre of pad = 0.155m, therefore Clamping force to generate brake torque = 129/(0.155 x 0.45) = 1,850kg (=4,070lb).
Front calipers: CP5570 6-piston: total piston area 50.1cm2.
Area of 3 pistons (per side) = 25.05cm2 = 3.883 sq.inch.
Therefore hydraulic pressure = 1,850/25.05 = 73.85 kg/cm2 (1,048psi).
Master cylinder 5/8" ID, area 1.98 cm2, so rod force for 73.85kg/cm2 = 73.85 x 1.98 = 145kg.

For rear, similar calculations to those above:

Rear brake torque required: 177.5kg wheel load x 0.9g x 0.32m tyre dia.= 51kg.m.
Clamping force req'd = 51/(mean disc radius 0.125m x coeff.of friction 0.45) = 905kg (1,991 lb).
Rear calipers: standard ATE 2-piston each 1.49" dia. = 11.25 cm2 per side.
Hydraulic pressure req'd = 905/11.25 = 80.4 kg/cm2 (1,140psi).
Master cylinder 5/8" dia. area = 1.98 cm2.
Rod force for 80.4kg/cm2 = 80.4 x 1.98 = 159kg (350 lb).
Brake pedal: Volvo standard pedal ratio = 4:1.
Modified to approx. 4.5:1
Total rod load on twin master cylinders = 146kg (F) plus 159kg (R) = 305kg.
So for pedal ratio of 4.5:1 the foot pedal force for 0.9g stop is = 305/4.5 = 68kg or 150lb.

Note that rod force for the two master cylinders are similar (146kg, 159kg) which means that the bias balance bar will be near centred.
Depending on your F/R caliper areas, you may need to select a different master cylinder diameter to achieve approximately equal rod forces.

I have found that in the Volvo racecar, a pedal force of 150lb is quite OK and in keeping for this application.
For a road application, a pedal force of 100lb (45kg) will be more suitable. This can be achieved with an aftermarket pedal box, like Tilton with a pedal ratio of 6.2:1

SPECIAL NOTE: The calculations above are provided for the interest of motorsport enthusiasts only. Not for road use.

These are interesting.  Pretty simple design.
I found these pics on a Porche 944 site. 
Anyone want to make some sets for 240's??

The below photos are Porsche calipers adapted by a European 240 owner for an '81 244 Turbo.   These calipers are considered radial mount.  Custom two-piece rotors were used, however the rotor size is not known.  Nice, simple adaptation.   These pics were located in the following Turbobricks thread:  https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=22070

These calipers are RADIAL MOUNTED

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240 Big Brakes 240 Dash Top Gauge Pod Cadillac 4-Note Horn Install 240 Dynamat Install
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Volvo VIN Decoding Page 240 Oil Cooler Page
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