|ELECTRIC COOLING FAN PROJECTS
Brushed fans and
Now BRUSHLESS Fans too.
|UPDATED: August 14, 2023 CONTACT|
|D O M
A I N S
2-Speed Fan Relays
from the 1990s
Fan Conversion Projects
(starting in 1997)
|(2009) Volvo 940 - 850 Fan Conversion
Fan Controller Project
|(2014) Lincoln MARK
VIII Fan Install #1
||(2014) Large Griffin Aluminum Radiator|
|(2018) AutoCoolGuy PWM Fan Controller||(2021) Lincoln MARK VIII Fan #2 (Dorman)
(2021) Hayden 16 inch P.O.S.
||Big FUSE for Big Fans|
|Ford Taurus Fan Info
||DUAL FAN Assemblies
|Big Jeep Chrysler Fans
||Fitting a WIDER Radiator in a 240
|>> BRUSHLESS FANS <<
NEW for 2023 PAGE CLICK HERE
|WATTS TO AMPS CALCULATOR
If you know the Watt rating of a fan, you can use that to calculate Amperage.
|WHY MAKE THIS PAGE?
I began tinkering with electric primary cooling fan conversions in Volvo 240s back around 1997 after having less than a successful time keeping my '84 245 Turbo from running too hot during warm 100+ degree Southern California summers using the stock pulley fan. I then began this page 1999 to share this info and I've been updating it on occasion ever since. Basically, this page will outline some fairly simple and inexpensive primary electric fan conversion ideas for Volvo 240s . . . and some that are not so simple or inexpensive. Some ideas worked ok, some not so well. Some of these ideas also will work for the 740, however it should be noted the 740 Turbo has less room between the radiator and water pump pulley than a 240, so some fans shown in this page may not fit the same in a 740.
While there are many options for your Volvo when it comes to keeping cool, these are just a few. This information is presented at face value with no specific claims of magical performance, other than my own experiences and test data.
All of my electric fan projects over the years were for Volvos with AIR CONDITIONING. So keep that in mind when you tell yourself YOU didn't need a fan THAT big. Maybe you didn't, but if you add AC (and an INTERCOOLER) that seriously changes the whole game, especially in a hot climate.
|For any electric
fan installation, make sure that your fan is capable
of turning itself
on reliably if your engine starts to
There are two primary reasons for performing an Electric Fan Conversion. The FIRST is to reduce the engine drag at highway speeds. In theory you should gain a little horsepower.
The SECOND reason would be to reduce the amount of stress on the water pump. 240s can go through water pumps faster than a typical car and it's a good idea to change them as preventative maintenance. The loads placed on the water pump bearings by the alternator and a huge belt-driven fan can shorten its potential service life.
RELAY Wire Diagrams Collection
Click here for my 8 page collection of RELAY-BASED cooling fan diagram suggestions you can use to build your own stuff (PDF).
Note: Relay based fan setups are ok, but it's "old technology." If that's ok with you, then use it. If you want better fan control, then it's available and I've included a LOT of info in this page. So keep reading.
|FAN CLUTCH OR ELECTRIC?
You will need to decide for yourself if your fan clutch is best or if an electric fan is best. If a new electric fan is big enough and really, really powerful, it might equal the cooling performance of a heavy duty fan clutch.
Most electric fans will not come close.
Also an electric fan may not be as reliable as the mechanical fan. Electrical stuff fails. If you decide it's best for your Volvo to keep the belt-driven fan, you may want to consider the option of a heavy duty fan clutch.
An interesting bit of information I discovered while trying out the below electric fan conversions over the years.
All electric fans I tried over the last 30 plus years were INFERIOR in cooling capacity compared to a heavy duty tropical fan clutch, EXCEPT for the huge fans at the bottom of this list, beginning with the big Ford fans.
More info on the Heavy Duty Tropical Fan Clutch can be found in this page: https://www.240turbo.com/TropicalFanClutch.html
VOLVO 2-Speed FAN RELAY Basics.
Lots of people are using this relay to control 2-speed fans because it's cheap if you can find it used.
For suggested wiring info: http://www.therangerstation.com/tech_library/volvo_electric_fan.shtml
Here's a collection of coolant temp switches/senders from NAPA. This list came from a 2007 discussion thread:
NAPA Fan switches
PN -- Temp On -- Temp Off -- Threads
|I began this page in the 1990s
ELECTRIC FAN CONVERSIONS
Over the years I've done a number of different electric fan conversions in 240s. I've compiled that info below.
Projects over the years.
Excuse the photo quality. This is a very old pic and it was originally a Polaroid.
This is the first electric fan conversion I did back
in 1997 for
my 245 Turbo. I also used this same fan for several
conversions of friend's 240s. One in a 240 non-turbo
was still going strong and cooling well more than 15
<<< The fan depicted at left is from an early to mid-eighties Buick Century, Pontiac Grand Am, Olds Cutlass, or other General Motors mid-sized car with FWD and 4 or 6 cylinder. It is made by AC Delco and is designed to be the primary fan for the car it originated in.
Dimensions for this fan are as follows:
Height and Width: 17 x 17 inches at shroud edges
Depth at shroud housing next to motor: 3 1/8 inches
Depth at rear of fan motor: approx. 4 1/4 inches
Fan blade diameter: 14 inches.
The stock Volvo 240 radiator is about 17.5 x 22 inches overall.
|<<< A larger 16 inch diameter fan in the same version can also be found in some of the GM 6 cylinder cars. The outer dimensions will be the same. This is important because this shroud is a pefect size to fit directly onto the typical Volvo 240/740 radiator.|
|<<< All four of the original
plastic mounting ears on the shroud need to be
removed for fitment to a Volvo radiator.
A hacksaw or sawzall does just fine here. In this photo the ears have already been cut off, but I left them next to the fan so you could see where they came from.
Since this fan will be mounted to the radiator,
you'll need some mounting hardware. The
simplest method I found is with some 2 inch sheet
metal screws, washers and these funny little sheet
The screws I used were the counter-sunk type with
some counter-sunk finishing washers. Most
any will work though.
This photo shows an existing hole in the top flange
of the radiator. All Volvo radiators will have
these holes for mounting of the original fan
shroud. The sheet metal nut can be used
here. You will then need to drill a small hole
in the GM fan shroud directly over the original hole
in the radiator.
The plan is for the new fan shroud to be fastened to the radiator by four sheet metal screws, two at the top and two at the bottom. You may need to drill the holes in the bottom radiator flange.
To make this fan work in your car, you have
several options. You can purchase an all-in-one fan
controller with a temperature probe that goes into
the radiator fins. You can use a coolant sensor
mounted in your radiator if it has one.
For my 8 page assortment of relay wiring diagram options, including two-speed circuits, click here (pdf file).
CONVERSION PROJECT #2 (2009)
Volvo 940 - 850 Fan.
Fan size: 388 mm (15.27 inches).
(Also didn't work well. NOT RECOMMENDED FOR HOTTER CLIMATES OR CARS WITH AC)
All of my electric fan projects over the years were for Volvos with AIR CONDITIONING. So keep that in mind when you tell yourself YOU didn't need a fan that big.
Maybe you didn't, but if you add AC (and an INTERCOOLER) that seriously changes the whole game, especially in a hot climate.
|Volvo 940 - 850 Cooling Fan
This is a very popular fan used in many older Volvo conversions. It's found in 1992 and later Volvo 940 and 960 models as well as all 850s.
I don't have the full dimensions for this shroud, but I have been told it's 22 inches wide. If anyone can contribute more info, please EMAIL ME.
This fan shroud has a number of vents as you can see in this photo. These vents have rubber flaps, which allow for airflow to escape during higher speeds when the fan normally isn't needed as much for cooling. Having these flaps in place will help compensate for the relatively smaller shroud opening. The flaps allow for more air to pass through the radiator at high speeds than would be possible without the flaps.
There is a similar fan found in the S70 and S80, however the S80 models I have seen feature a smaller, more compact motor. I'm not sure if it's capacity is less. All of these fans are two-speed models, with low speed being about 50% of high speed. The motor will have three wires; one ground and two hot wires (one for low and one for high). A two-speed circuit may be used when you install one of these or you may use just the high circuit only. My installation used the high speed only.
This fan BELOW is popular
in part because it's easily detached from the shroud and may then be
custom mounted in your own shroud or a custom one.
Once removed from the shroud, this fan is about 4 inches deep from the end of the motor to the furthest point on the front of the fan.
The fan shown in the far left photo has been removed from the original fan shroud. One cool thing about this fan is it simply unbolts from the original shroud. No cutting or chopping needed.
After it is removed, you'll find that the OUTER RING is about 17.5 inches across, which is why is fits well into a Volvo RWD mechanical fan shroud, which has an 18 inch opening. The shroud ring opening for this fan is 16 inches.
The actual fan blade portion diameter on this fan is 388 mm (15.27 inches).
For my 8 page assortment of relay wiring diagram options, including two-speed circuits, click here (pdf file).
In 2009 I mounted this fan in this 240 fan shroud for my 242. This is a 240 Turbo (intercooler) fan shroud.
The 940 fan shroud the fan came with was too wide for the normal width 240 radiator I had, so I did not use it for this conversion. Some people have cut down 940 shrouds to fit the 240 radiator.
Here is one of these fans mounted in a 740 Turbo fan shroud, which works better.
Photos found in: https://ozvolvo.org/discussion/3316/850-electric-fan-in-240
Again, the shroud used in these photos is a 240 Turbo
The inside diameter of this shroud is 18 inches.
This particular shroud will only correctly fit the 240 Turbo. It will NOT CLEAR the auto transmission cooling lines in a 240 non-turbo or a 740. Since a shroud normally sits further back in a Turbo intercooled car (because of the intercooler), some extra work was required to get the fan to sit deep enough into this shroud to clear the water pump. It was a tight fit when done.
And this shroud places the fan closer to the radiator,
offering at least 1 inch more clearance from the water
pump than a 240 Turbo shroud does. Plus it's a lot less
work making it fit in a 240 engine bay.
CONCLUSION: I believe it is better to use a 740 Turbo Fan Shroud.
I found that a shroud from a 740 Turbo (which can be seen above) is a much better choice to mount one of these fans inside of. The 740 Turbo shroud, also with an 18 inch opening, may be used in pretty much any 740 or 240 model without any fitment issues.
OVERALL REVIEW:I used this fan for about a year. I was disappointed.
Keep in mind I did NOT use rubber vent flaps.
It did not cool as quickly or as efficiently as I liked. I believe this disappointment was because this 388 mm fan (15.27 inches) is too small. The 15.27 inch fan acted like a bottleneck during my testing. The volume of flow through the radiator with this fan was TOO SMALL (even at highway speeds). When compared to the stock 18 inch fan shroud with a heavy duty mechanical clutch fan (which was better), it was easy to see an ACTUAL difference on my coolant gauge during warm days, on uphill grades, and especially with the A/C on. It possibly would have worked somewhat better if it had incorporated some of those rubber vent flaps found on a 940 fan shroud.
For real cooling needs with AC and an intercooler blocking radiator airflow, I found that a mechanical CLUTCH FAN is probably a better choice than this one.
The size of the fan and the size of the shroud opening makes a difference.
Consider how air flows through a radiator. There is a large area in front of the radiator that "collects" the air flow. Then as the air flow exits the back of the radiator, it must go through a SMALLER opening roughly the diameter of the fan blades. This is what I will call a funnel reduction effect, similar to pouring liquid into a funnel. You can pour the liquid faster, but the exit hole at the bottom of the funnel will only allow a certain amount through in a given time. And yes, the fan does help to move the air through the funnel, but it has to work harder if the funnel exit is small.
Let's look at the area of a shroud opening for a few fans.
Volvo 940 fan (15.27 inches fan size, 16 inch hole): The area for a 16 inch hole is 201 square inches.
Stock belt driven fan shroud (18 inches): The area for an 18 inch hole is 254 square inches.
Circle Area Calculator: https://www.calculatorsoup.com/calculators/geometry-plane/circle.php
| The above fan pulls a lot of
amps upon start up when using the high speed circuit
only. Because I wanted to avoid sudden, hard current
draws to my charging system when this fan came on, I
sought out a high-tech fan controller that offered a "soft-start" feature.
I chose the Delta
Current Control FK-55. This is an
all-in-one controller and it works smoothly, so no
relays or other sensors are needed. When it's time for
the fan to come on, it comes on slowly and smoothly,
beginning with about 20% speed until more speed is
needed. It regulates your radiator temperature by
smoothly increasing or reducing fan speed, instead of
on, off, on, off, like the old school method.
Definitely not cheap.
PROBLEMS WITH DELTA CURRENT CONTROL (DCC) CONTROLLERSUPDATE Summer 2012: I'm sorry to report that I can no longer recommend the controllers from Delta Current Control. I had two of them fail after less than 2 years of use each. This makes a $180 controller way too expensive if it can't be reliable. And to make matters worse, the owner of DCC, Brian Baskin, has found it impossible to respond to emails, even if you place an order. When I placed an order for a third controller in 2012 my order went unanswered for 6 weeks. No email, no order status info, no communication. Nothing. I had to dispute the purchase with Paypal to get my money back after my order and emails went unanswered for 6 weeks. And yes, my car was down the whole 6 weeks.
Instead, out of desperation I bought a Flex-a-Lite "variable speed" controller. See the below Ford fan conversion for more info on that.
CONVERSION PROJECT #3 (2010)
Ford Thunderbird SC 17 inch Fan
Originally found in 1989-93 T-Bird, 3.8L Supercharged.
This one WORKED WELL IN HOTTER CLIMATES AND WITH AC.
All of my electric fan projects over the years were for Volvos with AIR CONDITIONING. So keep that in mind when you tell yourself YOU didn't need a fan that big. Maybe you didn't, but if you add AC (and an INTERCOOLER) that seriously changes the whole game, especially in a hot climate.
In 2010 I did this conversion for my 242 Turbo: This exact fan is only found in the 1989-93 Thunderbird SC and Mercury Cougar SC (supercharged 3.8 liter 6 cyl). The depth of this unit from the fan motor to the front of the fan is only 3.75 inches (a little bit less than the 940 fan). This fan is similar to the more common V8 Ford T-Bird fan or Lincoln Mark VIII fan, except this version is slightly smaller in diameter and a little less deep (from motor to fan), so it seems to fit in a smaller space. It has been "rumored" that these fans will pull an estimated 4000 CFM on high. I would not use this fan with a mediocre charging system.
UPDATE 2023: I still had this fan in storage when I bought my CFM anemometer in 2023, so I pulled it out for testing.
Free air test at 14.5 volts: Maximum speed 3550 CFM at 2580 RPM using 37.8 amps.
It did very well, pulling slighting more CFM than the 18 inch Mark VIII fan I tested. I think the motor is identical to the Mark VIII fan.
The outer circular portion on this Ford shroud is 17.5 inches across. The actual fan blades are 17 inches in diameter. After some chopping and cutting, as seen in these photos, it fits very well into the 18 inch opening of a Volvo 740 Turbo fan shroud.
I sought out this fan because after using a belt-driven heavy duty tropical fan clutch for years in my 242 Turbo, I was spoiled by how great it cooled. I had tried the smaller 940 fan above for a while and that was a disappointment. It didn't cool as quickly or as efficiently as I liked. I believe that fans downfall was because the 15 inch fan opening became a bottleneck and the volume of air-flow through the radiator was reduced (even at highway speeds) compared to the stock shroud with an 18 inch opening and a mechanical fan. It was easy to see a difference on uphill grades, especially with the A/C on.
| Here's the Ford fan next to the 740 Turbo shroud that I mounted it in.
The Ford shroud needed to be cut down, separating the fan and circular ring that was then mounted into the Volvo shroud.
I used a friction cutting wheel to trim the Ford shroud, which worked ok... not the best choice job. A sawzall with a fine blade would work much better on this plastic.
Here are in-progress assembly pics and the completed fan. The last pic shows it mounted in my 242 Turbo.
This T-Bird fan is a two-speed fan, like the 940 fan, except this one is much more powerful. The low speed on this fan probably pulls at least as much air as the high speed on a 940 fan. I have read that the high speed on this fan pulls between 35 and 40 amps when running continuously. So this is NOT a fan for a light-weight charging system. A large capacity alternator (100 amp), heavy cables to the fan motor and a high capacity relay (50 to 70 amp) would be a good recommendation.
For my 8 page assortment of relay wiring diagram options, including two-speed fan circuits, click here (pdf file).
The diameter of the round barrel portion of this fan fits pretty well into the 740 shroud opening. The main problem with this fan is they don't appear to be very easy to find and there doesn't seem to be an aftermarket replacement. Using the larger Mark VIII fan below is not possible because the round barrel is larger than the 740 shroud barrel. A decent possibility for an available fan to fit inside this shroud is the single Ford Taurus fan further below. I haven't tried this. If you havem please let me know how it worked out.
|PROBLEMS WITH DELTA CURRENT CONTROL (DCC)
At one time I used DCC controllers. I can no longer recommend the fan controllers from Delta Current Control. I had two of them fail after 2 years of use each. This makes a $180 controller way too expensive if it can't be reliable. And to make matters worse, the owner of DCC, Brian Baskin, absolutely would not respond to emails. My third and LAST order to replace the second bad unit resulted in NO ORDER CONFIRMATION EMAIL and he absolutely would not respond to any emails. This went on for 6 weeks. No communication, period. And my car was down all this time. I finally had to dispute the purchase with Paypal to get my money back.
|There are a few options for
controlling a primary electric fan like this. The
old school method is using a relay (or multiple relays).
Relays are pretty reliable, but electronic temperature
switches are not always as good in the long term.
I installed one of the above 2-speed T-Bird fans in a
friend's 240 many years ago and used I used a Hayden 3654 adjustable fan
switch (shown at left. It was about $40 at
Summit Racing) to turn on the fan low speed circuit for
normal cooling needs. Typically I would set a controller
at 180 to 190 degrees F, depending on the coolant
thermostat being used.
Then for this installation I used a separate heavy duty 70 amp relay to trigger the high speed circuit as a failsafe. This relay was then wired to a standard Volvo on/off temp sender in the radiator (outlet side). This temp sender was there to trigger the high speed if the outlet temp exceeded approximately 210 degrees F, which would happen as a failsafe if the Hayden fan switch failed. I also put an override switch on the dash to turn on the high speed circuit manually if needed. This type of installation functioned well in hot SoCal summers using the A/C for many years, but of course this Hayden controller did eventually FAIL. The engine was saved by the failsafe relay I added.
The photo at left is the Flex-A-Lite 33054 "Variable" Speed Controller.
At time of writing this, Flex-A-Lite made these in 35
and 45 amp versions. The 33054 is the heavy duty 45 amp
version, reportedly designed to run multiple fans if needed. I bought this 33054 from Summit
Racing for about $100 and it was in use in my black 242
Turbo (installed summer of 2012) with the big Ford fan
shown above until it failed at a really bad time in 2016. It was wired
to control the fan high speed circuit only.
This controller was actually more reliable (lasted longer) than the Delta controllers that failed (just a little). After installing it, I discovered that this fan controller is not really a true variable speed controller. This controller uses a probe in the radiator fins and when the set temperature is reached, it will turn the fan on at 60% power (set point is adjustable from 160 to 210 degrees F). If the radiator temperature increases more than 10 degrees above your set temperature, the fan switches to 100%.
So the reality is this controller is a 2-speed controller, instead of a true variable speed controller. That was a disappointment to me, since the big Ford fan can cool quite well at very low speeds (maybe 25-30%) under light load and this controller can't do that. This controller will also operate your fan(s) for up to 30 seconds after shutting off the car if it reads a high enough temperature. And of course it has the connections to add the A/C "ON" circuit (turns on at 60% continuous) as well as circuits for a manual override "ON" switch and manual override "OFF" switch if you want. The installation instructions for the Flex-A-Lite 33054 can be seen here: http://static.summitracing.com/global/images/instructions/flx-33054.pdf
FINAL NOTE: I'm a fan of fitting larger radiators when possible (because Volvo designed their radiators for Swedish summers). This is especially needed when running AC, but there is prior planning needed when it comes to a 240 Turbo. The standard Volvo intercooler configuration limits the radiator width to the stock dimension. So if you go wider, you must plan to install a different intercooler so you can route intake tubes around the wider radiator. More info on this subject can be found below or CLICK HERE.
You can also go with a taller radiator. It's even possible to install a 19 inch tall radiator where normally the limit is 17 inches tall. Don't believe me? See the following Turbobricks thread: https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=296380 .
I decided I wanted a fatter (and WIDER) radiator.
I bought this one from Griffin Radiator. This was PN 1-55221-X, which was in their UNIVERSAL radiator section.
The overall size is 26 x 15.5 inches, 3 inches thick, and it has two rows of 1.25 inch tubes.
For that 26 inch width, the core takes up about 21.5 inches and each side tank is about 2.25 inches.
A stock 240 radiator is about 22 x 17.5 inches overall including side tanks.
The hose inlet and outlet sizes I chose are 1.38" OD.
FYI: They call this radiator a universal fit "Chevy style". Price was about $350, not including adding the two extra hose fittings, which I had done after I got it..
It can be ordered with or without a top radiator cap flange. Volvo 240s normally don't use a radiator cap, but I find it becomes useful with filling with coolant. So I ordered it with the radiator cap flange. The cap that fits this flange is Stant PN 10230 or 10231.
I then had aluminum male AN fittings welded on the right side tank. The top fitting is AN -6 MALE for the hose to the expansion/overflow tank. The lower fitting is AN -10 MALE for the water-cooled turbo hose tee in the lower hose.
|LINCOLN MARK VIII (Mark 8) FAN
The Lincoln Mark VIII fan is legendary and massive. This fan assembly is roughly the correct width for this new radiator I bought (after trimming off the four protruding mounting ears), so it fits tight, but fairly well.
This fan consumes between 27 and nearly 40 amps at full speed (at 14.5v plus).
Some reports say it pulls nearly 4000 CFM. I don't know if that rating is accurate, but there are also people claiming to get 4000 CFM from a Volvo 940 fan. ZERO CHANCE of THAT! That is NOT realistic at all from that over-rated 940 fan.
But, if you're tired of trying out fans that just aren't enough for your hot climate, like the over-rated 940 or 850 fan (and if you have AC), you might think about one like this.
My preference is to have a fan that has huge capacity, more than needed, because I think it's better to have a fan that does not need to be running at full speed all the time to do a good job. This fan does that for me.
Lincoln Mark VIII (Mark 8)
7 BLADE FAN
I bought this NEW complete fan assembly for my 242 several years ago.
I think this one was originally for a 1997 model (Lincoln made the Mark VIII until 1998).
It's supposedly a SINGLE SPEED type and can typically be found as Ford PN F7LH-8C607-AB or F7LH-8146-AA.
Later year Ford/Lincoln single speed fans were designed for a VARIABLE SPEED CONTROLLER. Earlier fans were designed as two-speed versions.
The 7-blade fan/shroud below is an AFTERMARKET part, Four Seasons PN 75627. I bought it in 2014
It appears the same 7 blade fan can also be found as TYC PN 620950 (made in China).
All Single speed fans use the same connector (above) as dual speed fans.
A single speed fan will only use the two OUTER terminals.
I did a few tests of this 7 blade fan below in 2016 and the below results can be used for your own comparison.
The fan blades measure 17.5 inches in diameter. The inside opening on the shroud is almost 19 inches.
The plastic shroud is 26 inches wide including the mounting tabs or 21.75 inches wide without the tabs (I cut the tabs off of my shroud before using in my car).
The shroud is 19 inches tall overall, measuring at the outside of the shroud ring, and 5.5 inches deep to the back of the fan motor.
Weight: The complete assembly is about 8.8 lbs.
More info here: http://forums.tccoa.com/6-general-tech/136722-ultimate-mark-viii-fan-thread.html
If you need to disassemble this fan it will not be easy. Mine had rivets holding the motor to the shroud, which would need to be drilled out.
TEST RESULTS (2014)
7 Blade Fan, Four Seasons PN 75627.
FORD PNs: F7LH-8C607-AB, F7LH-8146-AA, F4SZ8C607D.
TESTED INSTALLED with radiator, intercooler and AC condenser.
Tested at 12.7 volts (static battery voltage, engine not running). It ran at a maximum speed of 1800 rpm. Current used: 33.6 Amps.
Also tested at 14 volts (engine running with alternator charging). It ran full speed at 2000 rpm. Current used: 40 Amps.
The above fan assembly that I purchased is not a genuine Ford part. It was an aftermarket part from Four Seasons, PN 75627. This fan can also be found as TYC PN 620950 (made in China).
Fan speed testing was done using an inexpensive hobby optical tachometer above: Turnigy Micro Tacho. This tach meter can be set to measure 2 to 9 blade fans. It was priced under $20.00.
Amperage usage was measured using this Digital 0 to 100 Amp meter. Price: $15.00. https://www.amazon.com/DROK-Digital-Multimeter-6-5-100V-Amperage/dp/B017BCXQO6/ref=sr_1_3
Here's some more Mark VIII test data that you might find useful. I cannot verify any of this.
Taken from above discussion forum:
The stock Ford OEM fan flowed the most, followed very closely with the Dorman 620-118 then the TYC-620950. The Dorman is made in Thailand and the TYC in China. The Dorman seems superior as they revamped the fan blade design and flowed closest to the stock design. With higher voltage on high speed I can see these fans getting close to 3800-4000CFM at 14.4V.
Without a radiator in front the low speed amperage dropped 3-5 amps and the full speed only about an amp or so. Results were as follows:
Stock Ford fan: High speed: 3415 CFM. 22 amps @ 12.7 volts.
Low speed : 2800 CFM. 18 amps @ 13.7 Volts.
Dorman: High speed: 3355 CFM. 22 amps @ 12.7 volts. (I tested this Dorman fan in 2023 CLICK HERE)
Low speed: 2578 CFM. 16 amps @ 13.7 volts.
TYC: High speed: 3116 CFM. 22 amps @ 12.7 volts.
Low speed: 2578 CFM. 17 amps @ 13.7 volts.
Some more Unconfirmed Mark VIII Fan part numbers and speed info I found on the internet:
1993-96 Mark VIII PN F3LY8C607A. Rotation is reportedly 1100 rpm on low and 1850 rpm on high.
1997 Mark VIII uses PN F7LZ8C607AB.
1998 Mark VIII uses PN F8LZ8C607AA. Later alleged 2-speed version rpm 1800 rpm on low and 2225 rpm on high.
SO WHY DO I NEED SUCH A MASSIVE FAN?
In most driving conditions I don't. The FIRST reason I'm using this big fan is that I like having the potential for more capacity than I need.
The SECOND reason is that I have a big radiator with an intercooler blocking a lot of it's airflow, plus a big AC condenser blocking everything.
And I live in a state that gets over 100 degrees in the summer. Plus I drive my car across the country and across deserts to Volvo events at least once per year. Sometimes twice. The elevation changes go from sea level to over 7,000 feet. So a high cooling capacity is a pretty good thing to have.
In summary, I like my car to stay cool and I like the AC to be on when climbing grades in hot climate.
Please email me if you have any questions or comments.
2021 Fan Change for My 240
Lincoln Mark VIII 6 Blade Fan
It was time for a new fan.
You can still get this fan assembly (believed to be for pre-1997 cars), which will look like this one below.
This is the aftermarket Dorman PN 620-118.
An aftermarket version like this will typically cost under $100 for the complete fan and motor assembly with shroud as shown.
This fan: Dorman 620-118, is reported by some sources to be a 2-speed version. It has 6 blades and is made in Taiwan.
Dimensions: The fan blade outer ring is 18.5 inches. The actual blades in the ring are 17.5 inches.
The plastic shroud is 26 inches wide using the mounting tabs or 21.75 inches wide without the tabs. The shroud is 19 inches tall at the outer ring and 5.5 inches deep to the back of the fan motor. The complete assembly weighs about 8.8 lbs.
CFM TESTING (2023)
Tested in FREE AIR.
14.5v: Max Speed 2450 RPM. 3900 CFM. 26 amps.
Tested INSTALLED in car. Fan mounted on radiator, with intercooler and AC condenser in front of radiator.
14.5v: Max Speed 2450 RPM. 3200 CFM. 27 amps.
Testing was done using a anemometer. Same one used in this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYkuNP1RnoM&t=26s
Aiomest AN-846A anemometer purchased from Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B088QZ3689
If you need to disassemble this fan, the motor and fan is fastened using nuts/bolts.
More info here: http://forums.tccoa.com/6-general-tech/136722-ultimate-mark-viii-fan-thread.html
Motorcraft PN WPT-362, Ford PN 3U2Z-14S411-ESA. Fits Lincoln Mark VIII and probably some other Ford fans.
A google search will find them in a few places. I have only found them available with 12 gauge wire pigtails. In my opinion that's barely adequate for such a powerful fan. I changed the wire to 8 gauge wire. I use fine strand welding cable for heavy power cables, because it can flex without fatigue.
If you're using a SINGLE SPEED fan, then you will be using the two OUTER terminals only for high power and ground.
A dual speed fan may also be used as a single speed fan by using the outer terminals only.
Dorman Conduct-Tite Terminal
AKA: Ford Standard Block Technician Terminal. This is the terminal that goes into the above Ford fan motor connector. This is considered to be a high-current terminal, because of the "tongue' design, which provides a wide contact patch. Dorman offers this as PN 85367 which fits 14-16 gauge wire. A 10-12 gauge version (or even larger) would be much better, however so far it DOES NOT EXIST.
|I improvised and used this 14-16 gauge terminal since
I couldn't find larger ones. I added one of my large
terminal overcrimps to make a solid, tight crimp for
the 8 gauge welding cable I used.
Then I covered with heat shrink.
When inserting this terminal into the back of the Ford connector housing with the extra fat 8 gauge welding cable, it can be a little tight going in. I opened up the holes slightly on the back of the connector to accommodate the fat insulation. If necessary, a little trimming of the inside of the housing with a hobby knife will help it go in and click. Mine then went in and clicked in place without an issue.
FAN FAILURES Can Happen.
If you search the internet you'll find some comments about some fan failures that have occurred with some heat damage similar to the below photo.
This photo below is a Four Seasons aftermarket fan that failed because the GROUND connector terminal overheated and eventually lost continuity.
These small (.250 inch) terminals are forced to carry a LOT OF CURRENT and it's believed this happened because of poor contact, probably due to some corrosion and/or maybe the terminal grip with the spade connector was not tight.
It appears most failures like this have been when these high-amp fans were wired to a relay that runs them at FULL SPEED for a long period of time. This fan WAS forced to run full-speed many times (while using AC) when I first got it because the controller I was using at the time offered no better option. This problem will be be less likely if the fan is wired to run at a lower speed for most normal running. Even better would be using a PWM controller, which runs the fan at slower speeds until more air is actually needed.
Still, this is a potential problem that you should keep in mind and watch for if your high-amp fan gets very heavy use.
Some people have said that using simple .250 inch (6.3 mm) female spade terminals worked better for them, instead of using the Ford terminals or even the plastic connector housing.
DO NOT EVEN THINK ABOUT SUCH A THING. READ THE BELOW INFO FIRST.
This normal .250 inch terminal below looks like it can handle a large load, but it won't.
The designers have rated it at about 7 to 10 amps continuous and 14-23 amps maximum.
So I would NOT use one of these for a fan that can draw up to 40 amps.
This is a TE Dynamic 5000 Series .250 inch (6.3 mm) terminal, PN 1318696-6 or 1318697-6.
It's a special high current SILVER PLATED terminal, which is rated at 45 amps.
This terminal is designed to use up to 8 gauge cable.
These are a little more expensive compared to other terminals. More info: https://www.te.com/usa-en/product-1318696-6.html.
These terminals will slide onto the male spades in the fan motor (without using a connector housing if necessary).
They are slightly larger than a standard Ford terminal, so they will not directly fit inside the Ford connector housing without slightly modifying it, but with a few minutes of work, THEY WILL FIT (pics below).
So you can try that or use them without the connector housing and cover them with heat shrink.
When I tried them out I found it would be better to squeeze them slightly so they fit the spade a little tighter.
This TE terminal is also available for smaller 10-12 gauge cable as PN 179956-6 or 316041-6.
Here's a pic showing the TE-5000 terminals covered in heat shrink and inserted into the fan without a Ford connector housing.
And here are some pics showing the TE-5000 terminals fitted into a modified Ford connector housing.
The modification was done by using a small set of wire cutters to trim the inner plastic walls until the terminals would slide all the way in and click into place. This makes for a nicer, more factory looking connection. Plus this method makes the terminals more secure, so they won't accidentally pull out or vibrate loose.
NOW these terminals are securely held in place AND large 8 gauge cables are attached.
Another terminal option below if another is needed:
This is the Aptiv (formerly known as Delphi) .250 inch (6.3 mm) terminal, PN 06288913-L.
It's a fairly common high-current tin plated terminal for up to 10 gauge cable. It's rated at up to 48 amps.
The design of this flat tongue is the key to more contact area for high current connections.
|MOUNTING THE MARK VIII SHROUD IN MY VOLVO
After trimming off the mounting tabs from the Mark VIII shroud, I fabricated a steel frame to brace the inside TOP of the shroud. This was important to fully support the weight of this shroud and fan (about 9 lbs), because I was using top radiator and fan shroud brackets to hang the fan, which I made (those can be seen below). This brace was made of 1/2 x 1/8 inch steel bar. This is pretty typical metal bar stock found at many many hardware stores. I bought bolts and clip-on barrel nuts (AKA: U-Nuts) from McMaster-Carr. The bolts are PN 98093A436, M6 x 1.0 mm, 16mm long with a flange head (see photo). These have a 10 mm head. The clip-on barrel nuts are PN 95210A150, thread size M6 x 1.0 mm made for a panel thickness of 0.8 to 4 mm.
| Here's the Griffin radiator and
Mark VIII fan installed in my 240.
As you can see the original style intercooler is gone since it no longer fits and instead I installed an eBay intercooler in front of the radiator with new intercooler pipes going around the radiator. This radiator is WIDE and there is barely enough room to keep the battery in the original location, but it still fits.
|Here's a bottom view of the Mark
Yes, the Mark VIII shroud is taller than the radiator by several inches. This is fixed by adding some aluminum sheet metal to seal the gap. It's securely fastened by screws and then some duct tape added to seal the bottom gap.
|After the above fan installation I (stupidly) continued using the Flex-A-Lite 33054
Variable Speed Controller that I had
previously installed during conversion #3. As I mentioned before, I
was disappointed in this controller after I discovered that it's
actually only a 2-speed controller instead of a true
variable speed controller. I really would
rather have had something that begins spinning the fan
10% or 20% or 30% instead of beginning at 60% low
speed like this
controller does. This controller does have an AC mode,
but that puts the fan at 100%, which is ludicrous when you have a Mark VIII fan.
|Anyway, this Flex-A-Lite controller had a complete MELT-DOWN in 2016.
If failed on a hot day when I had the AC going and while in line to pull into a car meet.
So this P.O.S. is definitely NOT recommended for a large fan.
in 2018 I found a new, high-capacity PWM fan controller (BELOW) that
could finally actually handle the load of a huge fan.
| So here's the Auto Cool III that
I installed in my 242 Turbo in November 2018 to
control my Lincoln Mark VIII fan. It's a 125 amp PWM fan
controller. It's internally fused for 150
An explanation of the HOT-WARM temperature adjustment knob is found is this PDF document from Autocoolguy:
|This controller can run one or two fans.
When running ONE FAN like I am, the output posts (FAN A and FAN B) are combined as shown below. The controlled output cable for my fan negative then gets attached to the FAN A post on the left.
The two center ground posts get connected to battery ground or chassis ground.
It may seem a bit backwards from old school methods, but these controllers are designed so that the 12v cable from the battery goes directly to the FAN POSITIVE. Then the fan gets controlled by the negative cable, which comes from the FAN A or FAN B posts (or both in my case).
The full installation PDF guide and diagram for this controller can be seen here: https://www.autocoolguy.com/8511ca.pdf
Or you can see the full DIAGRAM of my installation HERE.
That's a 3 amp fuse I added between the battery power and the controller 12v input. It's on the direct battery power to the controller.
| Here are all the input
pins on top.
Hooking this thing up is pretty simple. Pins 7 and 8 (the two white wires on the right) are for the full speed dash override switch. These contacts are labeled F/S (for "FailSafe") and Ground). When those two pins are bridged, the fan runs at full speed.
The AC speed adjustment trim pot is beneath that round black cap.
| Here's the AC trim pot from above.
I used a photo tachometer to measure fan blade speed and I set the AC speed at 1300 rpm, which was about 65% of maximum speed (max: 2000 rpm at 14.5 volts).
| Here's the default
universal temperature sensor that comes with this controller.
This is the default sensor you get, unless you order one of their optional screw-in sensors. It's designed to partially slip under the radiator outlet hose and may be used on any ALL METAL radiator. It's not for radiators with plastic outlets. This is the sensor I used for my all-aluminum radiator. It comes with long wire leads wound as twisted pair for signal protection. Autocoolguy recommends a goal of getting coolant temperatures at the radiator OUTLET to be 15 to 20║F below your thermostat setting or below your radiator coolant inlet temperature.
| Or you may optionally
choose a threaded screw-in sensor with a few
different thread size options, if you can use such a sensor. Autocoolguy recommends placing this near the
NOTE: AutoCoolGuy does not offer or recommend universal push-in sensor probes for the radiator fins.
They say that they don't believe in those due to inaccuracy. Not a problem. The first universal sensor above worked well for me, but eventually I plan to add a threaded bung to my radiator for a screw-in sensor.
If needed, they also offer an in-line hose adapter. Autocoolguy recommends a goal of getting coolant temperatures at the radiator OUTLET to be 15 to 20║F below your thermostat setting or below your radiator coolant inlet temperature.
| Here's the full speed override
switch I put on my dash.
I had seen a LOT of previous fan controllers FAIL over the years, which made me paranoid.
Having an override switch is a really good thing, even if only for peace of mind. I also added an LED light that lights up when the fan is on. It lights up dimly at low speeds and brighter at high speeds.
This is a really good thing for people like me who have developed electric cooling fan anxiety.
AutoCoolGuy has a diagram for wiring this dash LED in their web page HERE (ALSO SHOWN BELOW).
In the instructions they show the use of a 1.5k Ohm resistor in line with the LED power wire will reduce the brightness and give it a longer life. I found that a 1.5k Ohm resistor was not sufficient. My LED was still too bright and it really lit up the interior of the car at night. So I switched to a 10k Ohm resistor and the brightness seems about right and won't blind me at night. Maybe some 12v LEDs are brighter than others.
If you have any feedback or comments, please let me know: CONTACT
|What is the BUZZ or No-BUZZ mentioned
in AutoCoolGuy's webpage?
I was curious too. From what I've learned, there are some fans that are prone to making a buzzing sound at low speeds when receiving PWM input. AutoCoolGuy describes this as a mechanical issue in some fans which have a blade and armature tolerance that's not as tight as it should be. They said many Asian made fans seem to have this issue, but many Ford or other American made fans do not. There is more info in the AutoCoolGuy site as well as some videos of this buzzing in action. Basically, if you have a fan that does this and it bugs you enough to do something about it, then there are controllers with no-buzz circuitry built into them.
I DO NOT have a No-Buzz controller and I have not heard any buzzing noises from any aftermarket Four Seasons or Dorman Mark VIII fans.
Here's a basic diagram for an Autocoolguy controller from the Autocoolguy site.
Here's a diagram I made below showing how my installation was done for a single fan using the 125 amp blue controller.
|16.5 inch FORD TAURUS FAN
This is a popular fan for custom projects. Keep in mind that there is more than one Taurus fan version, depending on the year. Most people referring to this fan are talking about the ABOVE image, which came on approx. 1990-94 Ford Taurus with V6.
This fan is sometimes referred to as a 17 or 18 inch fan. The actual fan diameter at the outer ring attached to the blades is 16.5 inches.
The shroud inner opening is about 17 inches.
This complete fan and shroud assembly is available as an aftermarket replacement from Dorman, PN 620-101. If you want to compare this fan to the Lincoln Mark VIII, those dimensions are HERE.
The connector supplied with the fan is a 3-pole female plug as shown here. A mating male plug pigtail is listed as Ford PN WPT706, which may no longer be available.
|Installing a Salvage Yard Taurus Fan
Wes B. sent photos above of a salvage yard fan he pulled from a 1988 Ford Taurus.
He trimmed off the shroud plastic, except for the ring that supports the fan, and he inserted that into the above Volvo 740 TURBO shroud. It fit pretty well and this offers a larger electric fan alternative, which is 1.7 inches larger than a Volvo 850 fan.
Here's how Wes mounted his intercooler below and then the radiator behind it and then the shroud/fan combo in his 240.
There's plenty of clearance between the fan and water pump pulley. Wes said the Taurus fan was mounted inside the shroud with only a small amount of clearance between the fan and radiator.
Ferry H from the Netherlands began sending me some of his research when he was looking for a large fan for his car project.
The above radiator fan is identified as PN 52079528AB. It's used in Jeep/Chrysler/Mopar using 4 liter and 4.7 liter V8 and 3 liter diesel engines.
There is also an aftermarket fan, Dorman PN 620-010, that appears to match this Jeep part number.
A fan like this may be a good fit into a stock Volvo 240 or 740 mechanical fan shroud, although I HAVE NOT TRIED THAT.
It may be worth exploring as a much larger option than the small Volvo 940-850 15 inch fans people have been using for years.
These fans appear to have been used in Jeeps since about the year 2000, so they may be fairly easy to hunt down in a salvage yard.
DORMAN 620-041 (for JEEP)
Matt F. from South Carolina emailed me about this fan below, which he pulled from a 2005 Jeep Grand Cherokee 4L.
While this fan pictured has 7 blades, the current photos for the Dorman 620-041 found online seem to show a 6 blade fan.
This fan is reportedly about 18 or 19 inches in diameter at the outside of the shroud (depending on WHERE you measure. It has been advertised with a fan area of 226 square inches (suggesting it has a 17 inch actual fan blade size). It's pictured below next to the smaller Volvo 850 fan, which it replaced in Matt's 1999 Dodge Durango 5.2L.
If you have one of these fans, your comments are appreciated.
NOTE: The blades on this fan do protrude past the "shroud" on the fan toward the FRONT and the mounting ears are in the middle of the shroud about an inch from the front, so some spacers may be needed if using those mounting ears to set a comfortable fan distance from the radiator.
The electrical operation of this fan is a bit unusual. Applying power to either hot wire individually results in LOW speed. It appears BOTH "+" wires must be powered for HIGH speed.
According to Matt's anemometer when plugging in the 226 inch▓ area, this fan pulls 2500 CFM on HIGH SPEED through his radiator and A/C condenser combo. 2000 CFM on LOW SPEED.
High current draw was measured at about 25 amps at 14v.
These are similar flow numbers to a Taurus 3.8 two-speed fan, although maybe with higher current draw. This Jeep fan was far easier to mount though.
COMPARED TO VOLVO 850 FAN
Matt previously ran a Volvo 850 two speed fan on this same vehicle. He didn't measure flow rate, but airspeed through his radiator was 8 ft/s. Measuring in the same place on the radiator with this Jeep fan (using the same shroud, radiator, and AC condenser) resulted in 10-11 ft/s.
CFM TEST UPDATE SEPTEMBER 2021
I received an email from Phil Z. in Tokyo, Japan. The original fan in his Nissan 180SX was poor, so after some deliberation he decided to try mounting this Dorman 620-041 to his original shroud.
He contacted Dorman and received some info on the flow rate. According to Dorman, this fan is rated at 68.49 cmm on LOW SPEED and 79.03 cmm on HIGH SPEED.
This translates to 2429 CFM low and 2890 CFM high.
Amperage draw is reportedly 15 and 19 amps at 12v.
|Some of these big fans were reportedly used in Jeep Grand Cherokees. This fan pictured is similar to the above fan and is PN 52079528AD.
The Dorman PN 620-041 above also appears to match this Jeep part number: https://www.amazon.com/Dorman-620-041-Radiator-Fan-Assembly/dp/B003S9IDUE.
original Jeep/Chrysler fans reportedly used Bosch motors. There is a Mopar Part Number
of CBG4F250 shown here, which may correspond to a 2002 Jeep Grand Cherokee with a 4.0 or 4.7 liter V8 engine.
The 4000 CFM rating listed in this photo has not been otherwise
confirmed. This part number also seems to correspond to some of
the already mentioned numbers above when you search eBay, so it may be
no different than those above.
If anyone can help confirm any FAN DIMENSION info, please email me.
Here's a popular dual fan setup that may be right for custom installations.
This dual 12 inch fan setup is from a Ford Contour or Mercury Mystique. It's rumored to offer about 3,500 CFM, however remember these are only 12 inches. A bit further below is info that suggests it's closer to 1200 CFM per fan on high speed using 20-30 amps. It has a nice compact, factory-style shroud assembly.
This fan shroud (minus the outer mounting brackets) is
24.25 inches wide, 16.75 inches tall, and 3.5 inches deep to the back of the fan motors.
To use a dual fan setup like this you'll need a radiator with an approximate overall size of about 28 x 17 inches.
Aftermarket part: Dorman PN 620-104. Cost: about $100.00.
Matt F from South Carolina wrote me about his testing of this fan (a used Ford version from a salvage yard) in his 1986 Porsche 928.
With the engine running, charging system at 13.5v, he tested and found just over 1200 CFM per fan on high.
He hasn't measured current draw with it in the car, but on a jump box it was about 20 amps on high. He measured 0.5-0.6 ohms resistance across the fans, so he estimated they would be in the 24-27 amp range at 13.5v and probably closer to 30 amps at 14v.
Here's a video and explanation of this Ford Contour fan and some choices for powering it.
Dorman PN 620-350. Phil Z. from Japan sent me some information about this dual fan after he bought one for a project. This fan is made for mid-2000s Dodge or Chrysler. This fan assembly is wider than the above Ford fans, but has a shorter height. Cost: about $100.00-$120.00.
Phil is using this fan for a Nissan S13 240SX on a Nissan downflow radiator and he says it's a perfect fit.
Although this fan is designated as a Dodge-Chrysler fan, each fan uses the same Ford style 3-pole connector as the Lincoln Mark VIII fan HERE.
The main problem with a dual fan setup like this is getting a wide enough radiator that can still fit in the car.
For a Volvo 240 there is a limiting factor for fitting the radiator between the front frame rails.
If you want to use a dual fan setup like to Ford Contour fan above, you should have a radiator with an approximate overall size of approximately 28 x 17 inches.
Looking at the Volvo 240 image above, you will see there is approximately 29 inches between the frame rails. This sounds like a lot, but if you have intercooler tubes going around both sides of the radiator and/or a BATTERY in the original location, that will limit the room you have for a wider radiator. This means you must push the radiator toward the right side of the car to make room. The limit with a battery and intercooler tubes may be roughly the size of the GREEN rectangle above, up to about 26 x 17 inches.
If you don't have anything in the way and you're using a non-turbo engine or installing a V8, then you'll have more room to work with, especially if you move the battery out of the engine bay. This is represented by the BLUE rectangle above, roughly a maximum of about 29 x 17 inches.
If you're moving toward a custom radiator, Griffin Radiator offers some interesting custom fan shroud designs. I think the dual fan shroud shown here that extends the sides outward is an intriguing design, since it allows for larger fans than a normal dual fan shroud would offer. https://www.griffinrad.com/fan_shrouds.php
Can Dual Fans flow more than ONE fan?
I think most people look at dual fans and instantly think "YES" it'll flow more. But the size of the fan and the size (or AREA) of the hole makes all the difference.
Consider how air flows through a radiator. There is a large area in front of the radiator which "collects" or "funnels" the air flow. Then as the air flow exits the back of the radiator, it must go through a SMALLER opening, which is the size of the fan blade opening or shroud opening. This is what I will call a funnel effect, similar to pouring liquid into a funnel. You can pour the liquid faster, but the exit hole of of the funnel will still only allow a limited amount through at a time.
And yes, the fan does help to move more pressurized air through the funnel, but it has to work harder if the funnel exit is smaller.
Let's look at the area for a few fan size openings.
Lincoln Mark 8 fan (18 inch fan): The area for an 18 inch hole is 254 square inches.
Ford Contour dual fans (12 inch fans): The area for a 12 inch hole is 113 square inches (226 square inches for two fans).
Ford Taurus 16.5 inch fan (17 inch hole): The area for a 17 inch hole is 226 square inches.
Volvo 940-850 fan (15.27 inch fan with 16 inch hole): The area for a 16 inch hole is 201 square inches.
Keep in mind that if you want to more accurately calculate fan area, you need to measure the diameter of the fan motor, then deduct that area from the fan diameter area.
Circle Area Calculator: https://www.calculatorsoup.com/calculators/geometry-plane/circle.php
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