2 4 0 T U R B O . C O M
D A V E ' S   V O L V O   P A G E
BRUSHLESS COOLING FAN PROJECTS
for Volvos


      UPDATED: July 2, 2024       CONTACT  
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WATTS TO AMPS CALCULATOR
If you know the Watt rating of a fan, you can use that to calculate Amperage.
https://www.inchcalculator.com/watts-to-amps-calculator/



Brushless Fans
Return to BRUSHED FAN PROJECTS  > PAGE 1 <
Delta PAG Brushless Fans
Spal Aftermarket Brushless Fans
Volvo XC90 (Bosch) 18.25" Brushless Fan
Gen 6 Camaro (Spal) 18" Brushless Fan
Volvo S60 (Bosch) 15.25" Brushless Fan DeWitts C7 (Spal) 18" Brushless Fan
Corvette C7 (Spal) 14" Brushless Fan Vintage Air Custom 18" Brushless Fans
Jeep JK "Pentastar" 18" Brushless Fan
INSTALLED IN MY 240
Methods used for
ACTIVATING a Brushless Fan
Brushless
FAN CONTROLLERS
Testing Methods and Tools
for Testing Brushless Fans

---  NOTICE: BRUSHLESS FANS ARE NEW STUFF. A NEW LEARNING CURVE WAS NEEDED (at least for me)  ---

This image comes from the below linked article on the Differences between Brushed and Brushless DC Motors. 
haydonkerkpittman.com/learningzone
.
In 2023 I began looking closer at brushless fans after I saw some videos and test data which suggested some BRUSHLESS fans can significantly out-perform old-school BRUSHED fans, offering higher speeds, more airflow, and all while using LESS AMPERAGE. 
I'll get to some performance test data further down, but there's one very interesting thing I have found during testing that I wasn't aware of (since I wasn't experienced with these). These fans often become MORE efficient at HIGHER voltage levels. I began testing brushless fans at 12.7v static battery levels and then later at 14.5v with the engine running.  In many tests I found a brushless fan spins faster and pushes more airflow with LESS AMPERAGE DRAW when used at HIGHER voltage levels.


-- NOTABLE BRUSHLESS FANS --
I'm interested in learning about any other brushless fans that you may have found useful for projects, especially if they can be made to work in an our OLDER VOLVOS. For convenience sake, I would also like to identify fans which can be made to fit a 240 or 740 radiator width without a lot of trouble.  If you come across a useful fan and can offer useful info, please let me know.
CONTACT


DELTA PAG BRUSHLESS FANS
If you happen to notice that DELTA PAG is the FIRST FAN listed in this page, it's not a coincidence. After you read more, I think you'll agree that these should be at the top.
 

There are a few videos showing Delta PAG fans performing very well. In 2015 Delta PAG https://deltapag.com introduced a 16 inch brushless fan which is shown in the first video below.

16 inch fan:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIiH4ik2CD8&t=242s
Ratings and tests in LOAD versus FREE-AIR
Delta PAG rates their 16 inch fan at 3200 CFM at 13 volts, using about 22 amps. Maximum RPM is about 2900. They've stated their ratings are made using a radiator in front of the fan. Putting a radiator in front of a fan reduces air flow. If you instead did a free-air test (nothing in front of the fan), the CFM results would be much higher than this, although not as realistic.

Delta PAG also states that they're able to achieve 25% more airflow than other brushless fans because of their motor design (and smaller center hub size). With that smaller center hub, an impressive improvement is made in air flow.  Pretty much all other brushless fan motors have huge center hubs in comparison, because other fans contain speed control electronics inside the hub. Delta PAG has made their speed control modules a separate part, which is mounted nearby and away from the airflow.
It seems logical that this can offer a significant improvement to airflow.

I've seen comments from Derale (they sell fans too) that you can generally expect about 100 CFM for each amp that a high output fan uses. If that's accurate, then the people at Delta PAG didn't listen. They've achieved a far greater airflow to amps ratio than that. Do the math: This fan makes 3200 CFM from 22 amps? Pretty damned good.
  
A mechanical drawing of their 16 inch fan is shown in their web site. The 16 inch measurement refers to the overall width of the fan assembly at the outside (16.00 inches). So this means the fan blade diameter is actually a bit smaller, closer to about 15 inches. This type of advertised measurement seems to be fairly common with most fan manufacturers, so keep this in mind when considering the fan size you want.

Delta PAG also offers a digital controller with digital displays for programming the temp-speeds.

18 INCH FAN
The larger Delta PAG 18 inch fan was introduced more recently. It's rated by Delta PAG at 4100 CFM at 13 volts, using only 26 amps. Another awesome airflow achievement using minimal current.
 
Maximum RPM is about 2900. Again their CFM rating is assuming there's a radiator installed in front on the fan. Some manufacturers don't rate their fans that way. 
Putting a radiator (and condensor and intercooler) in front of a fan creates an air restriction. It's much more than I would have expected before I did some testing myself. Any fan will be affected, but a strong fan like this will do a better job of overcoming such an air restriction than most others. 
In the below video demonstration you'll see their newer 18 inch fan was tested in FREE AIR at 5100 CFM. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7gEd8XxoIA
  RELIABILITY OF SOME ANEMOMETER (CFM) TESTING
I'm always curious as to what calculations some people are using in their anemometer tests. I was curious about that 5100 CFM test in the above Delta PAG video. Delta PAG rates this fan at 4100 CFM with the restriction of a radiator. So it appears we need to accept that a radiator restriction can reduce air flow by 20% or more (5100 to 4100 CFM in this case). When I first saw this, it seemed like a lot of airflow drop to me.  Later (tests are further below) I was able to do some of my own FREE AIR testing and INSTALLED testing. I did this with my old brushed Mark VIII fan and also with a big Jeep JK brushless fan.
I discovered
that a big drop in airflow is definite going to happen when things are in front of the fan. It's not insignificant!

--  DIMENSIONS --
 
I will also point out this 18 inch Delta-PAG fan (ABOVE IMAGE) doesn't actually have 18 inch fan blades (I added the red dimension to this image).
This fan measures 18.11 inches at the outside of the shroud assembly
. So the fan blade diameter is around 17 inches.  I'm not saying this fan might disappoint you. This fan actually out-performs many larger fans from other manufacturers. I point out the actual blade size because I don't think enough people pay attention to this when comparing fans. 

Also I don't think many other people I've seen on the internet are correctly considering the ACTUAL FAN BLADE SIZE when showing their own CFM tests. Accuracy matters. Accurate anemometer tests require accurate fan area measurements to be used. I've seen at least one other person test THIS SAME 18 inch fan above using an anemometer where the tester ignorantly used the fan area for an 18 inch fan (instead of the correct 17 inches) and then he ALSO failed to deduct the area of the center hub. Then he announced a finding of 3900-4000 CFM. A test like this cannot be taken as accurate.  Entering an exaggerated cubic foot value into an anemometer always results in an exaggerated CFM reading.   

Ultimately, I think you can use anemometer CFM tests as an estimation tool, but true comparisons are probably not possible unless two fans are tested with the same anemometer or same method, and of course with consistent fan area calculations.

HOW FAR OFF COULD SOME TESTS BE?
Using the above example, if someone uses the area calculation for an 18 inch fan when they actually have a 17 inch fan, it can result in an exaggeration of about 6%, or about 250 CFM.
And if that person fails to deduct the area for the center hub, this will result in error too. Delta-PAG fans have a really small center hub, so it would be a smaller error in this case. About 3% or about 120 CFM. This kind of error with other brushless fans with much larger center hubs can result in errors of about 6-8%.

Are there any draw-backs to a Delta PAG fan?
I have not found any draw-backs with these fans (although I don't own one). I certainly would consider owning one. I think these are really great fans.
When I first began looking at these fans, their digital speed controller was able to trigger a separate fan speed for AC ON, but it could only offer full-speed for that option.  As of December 2023 this has changed.  Their controllers now offer the ability to control AUX SPEED, so you now have some variable speed options for when AC is ON.  This is a nice option if AC is important to you. I'm one who likes to choose a middle speed (around 50%) for when the AC is on. Full speed is rarely needed for that if you have a powerful fan.

If you're interested in a LOT more information about these particular fans (which is NOT posted in their page), there's a long-winded technical discussion at this link below in a Corvette C7 forum.  This link below takes you to page 3, where the serious discussion begins. Some good info.
tbssowners.com/threads/c7-pwm-brushless/page-3


USING A DELTA PAG FAN IN A VOLVO
This is absolutely possible, however I know that most old Volvo owners are more inclined to look for the CHEAP solution.  This is not the CHEAP solution.  But it is an elegant one.
Certainly the 16 inch or 18 inch fan shown above can be used with a stock size Volvo 240 radiator or a large custom one. You would need to come up with a fan shroud (or have Delta Pag make one to your specs. They will if you ask).

Or I think one of these fans may just fit in a Volvo mechanical fan shroud.  The 740 Turbo fan shroud would probably work considering the overall dimensions of the Delta PAG fans.
If you decide to pursue something like this, please let me know how it goes. I'd like to post more info about these fans.


SPAL BRUSHLESS FANS

The Spal USA site
https://www.spalusa.com has some catalog info showing BRUSHED fans, but the USA site does not show a listing of their brushless fans.
You can see BRUSHLESS fans in the Italian page:
https://www.spalautomotive.it/brushless

I believe Spal first introduced their line of aftermarket brushless fans in 2014 with sizes up to 16 inches. These were called the "NUOVA" series.

An announcement believed to have been dated 2014 is below:
SPAL USA INTRODUCES NEW BRUSHLESS FAN TECHNOLOGY TO THE AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET
SPAL USA, a global leader in the production of high quality electric cooling fans and accessories, is excited to announce their new “NUOVA” brushless fan line.
SPAL “NUOVA” series brushless fans features include:
•Completely sealed/waterproof/dustproof motors with integrated power and signal electronics,
•"Soft start” technology (eliminates electrical in-rush spike),
•Digitally controlled for smooth and reliable operation,temperature sensor options for full variable speed control.
•Reduced axial dimensions and low weight,
•High efficiency, low noise, along with excellent resistance to vibration and harshness (NVH) levels.
In addition, the brushless design reduces the number of wear components versus standard brushed technology to deliver extremely long-lasting motor life as well as provide automatic power de-rating to guarantee performance in over-temperature operating conditions.
SPAL brushless technology is specifically designed for applications where low power consumption, fuel economy, low weight, advanced electronic control and high efficiency are key requirements.

SPAL THEN INVERTED THE PWM SIGNAL RAMPS ON THEIR AFTERMARKET FANS
I don't know what year this change was made. I have been told by others that Spal discovered that they were selling lots of their "smart" sensors needed to run these new fans, but instead of selling a lot of new (expensive) aftermarket fans, they discovered people were using the sensors for less expensive OEM fans from C7 Corvettes (2014+) and Gen6 Camaros (2016+), which were all made by Spal for GM. So then Spal decided to discontinue the "smart" sensors which worked with Corvette and Camaro fans and they created a new line of sensors which CHANGED the PWM duty cycle ramps. And then they changed all their new aftermarket fans to match the new "smart" sensors. I know this may be confusing. The new aftermarket fan series was then called the "PLUS" series and the old NUOVA series was then eliminated. From that point forward all new Spal "smart" sensors would only work with their second generation PLUS series fans, and OEM (Spal) Corvette and Camaro fan users were mostly tossed out in the cold (for a little while). 

SPAL "SMART" SENSORS


3/8 NPT threaded end.
4-pole connector: Deutsch DT04-4P Receptacle (female).
Mating plug you'll need may be 4-pole connector: Deutsch DT06-4S Plug (male) or Amphenol AT06-4S Plug (male).
More more information about these Deutsch or Amphenol connectors, go here:
https://www.240turbo.com/crimps.html#deutsch
 

FIRST GENERATION "SMART" SENSORS (for Nuova fans. No longer available from Spal).
PWM duty cycle ramp is set for LOW speed = 85%. HIGH speed = 15% (Negative polarity).
SBL-TS01: Turn on 140F - Max at 165F.
SBL-TS02:
Turn on 165F - Max at 185F.
SBL-TS03:
Turn on 190F - Max at 215F.
If you still need one of these, CLICK HERE for Vintage Air sensors.

SUMMARY of the CHANGE from 1st Gen to 2nd Gen: 
Spal NUOVA series (first generation aftermarket): Fan speed decreases as PWM duty cycle signal increases.
This is an INVERTED ramp. OEM C7 Corvette and Gen6 Camaro brushless (Spal) fans also use this type of PWM signal.
Spal PLUS series (second generation aftermarket): Fan speed INCREASES as PWM duty cycle signal increases (OEM fans all retained the old PWM ramps).

SECOND GENERATION "SMART" SENSORS (for PLUS series fans)
PWM duty cycle ramp is set for LOW speed = 15%. HIGH speed = 85% (Positive polarity).
SBL-TS-165P:
Turn on 140F - Max at 165F.
SBL-TS-185P:
Turn on 165F - Max at 185F.
SBL-TS-195P:
Turn on 175F - Max at 195F.
SBL-TS-215P:
Turn on 190F - Max at 215F.
(Note: Multiple fans can be run using ONE sensor)




The connectors on these Spal fans are this Yazaki 4-pole MALE plug above.
The matching FEMALE connector can be found here: Spal PN 30130628 in Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CTDGNGT. FYI, this is the same plug needed for the Camaro fan and also the Jeep fan further below in this page.



Can Spal "Smart" Sensors be used for other Brushless Fans?
Yes, for some. Spal fans require a controller (or sensor) which uses a 100 Hz PWM frequency. Some other fans use that frequency. If you find a fan which uses 100 Hz, that fan must also use a PWM duty cycle ramp like that used by the Spal Plus series, one that powers the fan at low speed when the PWM duty cycle is low (Positive polarity). There are work-arounds. You can use a device which can invert or even completely change a PWM frequency (shown further down in this page). Keep in mind that some fans from different manufactures may share the same frequency, but the duty cycle ramp may be INVERTED. For more information on how this can affect PWM signals or how they work, CLICK HERE for PWM Info section.

If you have a need to INVERT the polarity of a PWM signal or change the frequency, it can be done EASILY.  There are some devices SHOWN HERE which can do this for you.


 

WIRING A SPAL SENSOR
Here's a Spal diagram below showing how one of the above Spal sensors is wired to a Spal Plus aftermarket brushless fan.
Note that a brushless fan always has both power and ground going to the battery (or the ground may go to chassis ground). The fan speed/temperature control is regulated through the PWM signal wire.

Here are my personal feelings about using a "smart" sensor like this to regulate temp/speed:
I don't really care for it. If forces you to choose one temperature range and live with it. It allows no custom adjustments, so hopefully it's just right for your car. Changing sensors is really expensive. Check the prices of those. A Spal sensor can cost several hundred dollars.
Also if you have AC and if you want the fan to come on at a higher speed with the AC, your only choice is to wire it so the AC triggers the FULL SPEED override. 

Maybe some people are OK with the fan running full speed when your AC is on. That won't be too be bad if the fan is smaller, but when using a big, high-output fan, I prefer to be able to choose a custom speed for the AC (such as 50%, 70%, etc). Ok, I know you can't ALWAYS have everything you want, but going brushless is more expensive, so I would like to get more satisfaction for my money if I can.
Keep in mind that full speed with a high-output brushless fan can move a LOT MORE AIR. It might be more than you need and it might use more amps than you want.

Should a RELAY be used with a Brushless Fan?
According to Spal:
“Relays are used with brushed fans, and NOT used with brushless fans. As brushless fans are growing in popularity, we have had a few customers try to add a relay to a brushless system when a relay isn’t required. We don’t need a relay with brushless fans because they always do a soft start. In a brushless fan system, the fan is connected to constant power – directly to the battery. When the brushless fan receives the command signal to run, it makes a connection internal to the motor and runs. When the command signal goes away, the brushless fans enter quiescent current (sleep) mode.”
SOURCE:
https://www.streetmusclemag.com/tech-stories/fuel-cooling-ignition-tech/the-7-best-practices-for-wiring-automotive-fans-with-spal-usa/.

Here are some specs for a couple Spal brushless 16 inch fans.

From info I found in the Spal fan engineering catalog, the faster 2430 CFM fan above (which uses a 500 watt motor) will use about 30-33 amps at full speed. The slower 2053 CFM fan (with a 300 watt motor) will used about 20 amps. These results are maybe a little better than the performance numbers for the similar Spal brushed fans. So choosing a brushless Spal based on CFM and amperage draw might not always be the best reason. 

SOME 12 VOLT SPAL BRUSHLESS FAN INFO LISTED BELOW
Part Number
Spal info.
30107089
10 inch pusher with 300 watt motor (mfg PN: VA109-ABL321P/N-109A/SH)
30107059
11 inch puller with 300 watt motor (mfg PN: VA99-ABL315P/N-101A/SH)
30107087
12 inch puller with 300 watt motor (mfg PN: VA89-ABL320P/N-94A)

12 inch puller with 300 watt motor (mfg PN: VA90-ABL320P/N94A)
30107102
14 inch puller with 500 wat motor (mfg PN: VA116-ABL505P-105A)
30107103
14 inch puller with 300 watt motor (mfg PN: VA116-ABL324P-105A)
30207125
15.2 inch pusher with 300 watt motor (mfg PN: VA91-ABL326P-65A)
30107328
15.2 inch pusher with 500 watt motor (mfg PN: VA207-ABL523P/R/A/N-65A)
30107101
16 inch puller with 500 watt motor (mfg PN: VA117-ABL506P/N-103A)
30107090
16 inch puller with 300 watt motor (mfg PN: VA97-ABL322P/N-103A)

18 inch pusher fan with 800 watt motor (mfg PN: VA164-ABL806HT/R116A)

18 inch pusher fan with 1000 watt motor (mfg PN: VA164A-ABL1002HT/R-124A)


Spal shows a couple 18 inch brushless fans in some online catalog info: https://www.spalautomotive.it/brushless, but so far I have not found it actually being offered for sale anywhere.


NOTE: SPAL FANS REQUIRE A 100 Hz PWM FREQUENCY.


VOLVO 18.25" XC90 Brushless Fan (2003-2014)
I'm pretty sure that not all Volvos during these years got BRUSHLESS fans, but it certainly appears most or all XC90s did. 
 
 
These Volvo fans are made by BOSCH. There is more than one part number out there. Here we have PN 31111543 and PN 30749761.


--  DIMENSIONS --

As mentioned in the title, this fan is often described as a "19 inch" fan, although the actual FAN BLADE diameter is 18.25 inches (still big). 
The internet often exaggerates fans like this, although 18 inches is certainly a pretty big fan too.

This fan REPORTEDLY has an inverted PWM duty cycle ramp (Negative PWM polarity), meaning the fan will run slower when up near 90% duty cycle and it'll run full speed when down near 10%. 
I have not actually tested this fan.

  I have seen references to people using 128 Hz frequency for this fan, but it seems that Volvo brushless fans will reportedly work between 100 and 315 Hz. 

 

This plug has 3 wires.
1. Large BLACK wire (ground).
2. Large RED wire (+12v).
3. not used.
4. Small VIOLET wire (PWM signal).
I'm not yet familiar with this type or make of connector or a source for finding a mating plug, other than in another Volvo.




I'm hoping that a "middle" fan can be found between this 15.25" and the above 18.25". If you find such a fan, please share that with me.
VOLVO 15.25" S60, V70, XC70 Brushless Fan (2004-2009?)
A fan like this may be a good choice to trim and fit into a fan shroud that fits a stock size Volvo radiator. 
Since I no longer use a stock size radiator in my Volvo, I'm relying on others who might share some info if they try fitting a fan like this.
 

This fan pictured is Volvo PN 8616762 and reportedly came in the following Volvos: 2004-07 S60, V70 2.5T, R T5; 2005-09 S60 2.5T; 2005-06 S80 2.5T; 2005-07 - XC70 Base and Ocean Race.

Scott A. wrote and provided the above dimensions for this fan and some test info below.
  This fan responds to PWM signals as follows:
1. OFF PWM Signal: 92% to 100%.  Sometimes coming UP from 91%, (thru 92,93,94,95, etc) fan will stay on at MIN speed, but MOSTLY turns off. 100% is always off.  Going DOWN from 100% (99,98,97,...,93,92) fan will always be OFF.
2. ON PWM Signal: 91% (runs at MINIMUM speed) and then it increases speed as duty cycle % increases up to "NORMAL MAX" at 10%.
3. HyperMax PWM Signal:  5, 6, 7, 8, or 9% fan stays on "HYPER MAX" for any and all of these values.
4. OFF PWM Signal: 0% to 4%.  OFF for these values (possibly these values are used for some kind of diagnostic mode).

I have seen references to people using 128 Hz frequency for this fan, but it seems that Volvo brushless fans will reportedly work between 100 and 315 Hz. 

WATTS MEASUREMENTS (not Amps)
At MINIMUM the fan uses about 29 watts.
At NORMAL MAX the fan uses about 428 watts.
At HYPER MAX the fan uses about 510 watts.
It's suspected the fan is equipped with a 600 watt motor.
Highest amperage recorded: 45 Amps (about 42.5 Amps continuous). With fan connected to running alternator at 14.01V, NORMAL MAX reduce voltage to 12.84V, and HYPER MAX to 12.65V.
 

This plug has 3 wires.
1. Large BLACK wire (ground).
2. Large RED wire (+12v).
3. not used.
4. Small VIOLET wire (PWM signal).
I'm not yet familiar with this type or brand of connector or a source for finding a mating plug, other than in another Volvo.
 



CAMARO 18 inch Brushless Fan
(2016+ SS or ZL1)

Gen 6 Camaro SS and ZL1 versions (850 watt motor). This appear to be the car that got the biggest brushless fan in the GM car line-up. I believe a similar fan may also used in some later Cadillac CT and CTS models. These Camaro fans were made by Spal for GM. I bought a used 2019 Camaro fan on eBay with the intention of installing it in my car.  The fan I bought turned out to have some damage, so it got returned.  Before I sent it back I did some measuring and testing. Those results are here below.
It's NOT really a 19 inch fan as some people think. See more below.

The fan pictured below is GM PN 23332215. I believe other GM part numbers for this fan will be 23455465 and 84100128.

--  DIMENSIONS --
 

This fan will be called a "19 inch" fan by many people all over the internet. NO, it's NOT REALLY a 19 inch fan.
The actual fan blade diameter is 18 inches. The outer ring on the fan blade is 19 inches, but that ring does nothing to push air. So it's more accurate to call this an 18 inch fan.

 

The connector on this fan is this 4-pole MALE plug. This 
fan uses 3 wires, so only three poles are used on that plug.
I found the matching FEMALE connector after searching for Spal PN 30130628 in Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CTDGNGT. This is the same plug used for the Spal aftermarket fans and the Jeep JK fan in this page.

This fan has some fascinating performance.
From internet info, I expected this fan would have a standard PWM duty cycle ramp because there are sources on the internet which say that. The OPPOSITE is true.
During my testing, I found this fan has an INVERTED PWM ramp (Negative polarity). So keep in mind the internet can be a liar.
Negative polarity means LOW speed begins when duty cycle is near or below 85-90%. HIGH speed maximum is at 10% duty cycle.
THIS FAN REQUIRES A 100 Hz PWM FREQUENCY.
850w Camaro Brushless Fan Testing (2023)
I bought and tested one of these, but this fan never got installed by me, so I don't have "installed/loaded" tests here. I do have some info about this fan in the Dewitts section below showing this fan can pull 4188 CFM installed with a radiator in front.

I put together these tests below in FREE AIR. Free air means there are no obstructions.
If this fan were to be *installed* with a radiator, intercooler and AC condenser in front of the fan, the CFM results would be lower. I didn't get the chance to install this fan because it got returned.

  
Test voltage:
12.7v (static):  10% duty cycle; 5300 CFM (2600 RPM). 50 amps.
12.7v (static):  20% duty cycle; 5200 CFM. 45 amps.
12.7v (static):  25% duty cycle; 5000 CFM. 38 amps.
12.7v (static):  30% duty cycle; 4600 CFM. 32 amps.
12.7v (static):  35% duty cycle; 4400 CFM. 27 amps.
12.7v (static):  40% duty cycle; 4000 CFM. 23 amps.
12.7v (static):  45% duty cycle; 3800 CFM. 18 amps.
See video below for 50% duty cycle test.
12.7v (static):  60% duty cycle; 3000 CFM. 11 amps.
12.7v (static):  65% duty cycle; 2600 CFM. 9 amps.
12.7v (static):  75% duty cycle; 2000 CFM. 6 amps.
12.7v (static):  85% duty cycle; 1360 CFM. 4 amps.
 
A few tests were done with engine running for full voltage (14.5v). These t
ests were in FREE AIR.
 
14.5v:  50% duty cycle. 3300-3400 CFM. Using 13.6-13.9 amps.
 
14.5v:  10% duty cycle (full speed) 5690 CFM (at 2800 RPM). Using 50-53 amps.
Yes, 50 amps is a LOT, but I can't think of a reason why you would ever need this fan to run at full speed.
However if you do, I strongly recommend a super high output alternator with dual V-belts or a good serpentine belt system with a lot of belt wrap around the alternator pulley. 

These last two tests above are shown in the below video (except for RPM speed). The low amp draw at 50% (3400 CFM) is very impressive.
The full power test with engine idling pulled the battery voltage down from 14.4v at (50% speed) to 13.7v (at full power).
In my opinion, you really SHOULD NOT NEED TO RUN THIS FAN AT FULL POWER, except maybe for a trip to the sun.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kZ9Vi3JUjsA


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-KEYcQFQwd4

  NOTE: CFM testing in this page was done using the same anemometer used by Fast Monty's Garage in his video along with the same fan area calculation methods: youtube.com/watch?v=pYkuNP1RnoM&t=26s
  Aiomest AN-846A anemometer
purchased from Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B088QZ3689


VINTAGE AIR CUSTOM FANS (with CAMARO 850w motors)
Here are some interesting custom fan assemblies that Vintage Air is offering.  These all have the big 850w Camaro fans mounted in custom, compact shrouds. These are not cheap, but it's a very nice effort by them and it gives you some nice ready-made choices if any of these will fit your radiator.
The reason I've placed these items in my page is to show more possibilities for this fan if you need the shroud to be smaller or more compact than the factory Camaro shroud this fan normally comes on.

850w fan PN 371252:
vintageair.com/custom/pn=371252


 
850w fan PN 371253: vintageair.com/custom/pn=371253


850w fan PN 280479: vintageair.com/custom/pn=280479


850w fan PN 280483: vintageair.com/custom/pn=280483


Here's a video showing one of these Vintage Air fans being installed in a classic truck.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m19BKpd1KEg



Vintage Air is also offering "Smart" sensors for use with the above Camaro fans.
Since Spal no longer offers sensors like these that can work for a Camaro fan, I can only guess that either Spal has provided custom sensors to Vintage Air or Vintage Air has created their own.

850w Fan Sensor for 160 F thermostat. PN 113019: vintageair.com/custom/pn=113019
850w Fan Sensor for 180 F thermostat. PN 113021: vintageair.com/custom/pn=113021
850w Fan Sensor for 195 F thermostat. PN 113018: vintageair.com/custom/pn=113018




DeWitts Custom 18" Brushless Fan and Shroud
This is a fan and shroud combination designed and assembled by DeWitts (a performance radiator builder) to fit a 2014-19 C7 Corvette. The fan is a Spal 18 inch taken from the late model Camaro (same as this one). The shroud is a custom aluminum part they have created. This package is very nice and quite expensive.

This item can be found here:
dewitts.com/c7-corvette-19-electric-fan
Note that they keep calling this a 19 inch fan. It's an 18 inch fan. See my explanation in the Camaro fan section above.

This fan has been tested installed behind a radiator pulling 4188 CFM.
Source: corvetteforum.com/forums/4314951-dewitts-19-fan


The reason I have placed this item in my page is to show more possibilities for this Camaro fan if you need one with a shroud that's smaller than the factory Camaro shroud that this fan normally comes on. This compact fan-shroud combo *could* be re-created by you if you have some fabrication skills. Also it could be turned 90 degrees and it just might be a great fit for a factory sized Volvo 240 or 740 radiator.

--  DIMENSIONS --
 

 

The connector on this fan is this 4-pole MALE plug. This  fan uses 3 wires, so only three poles are used on that plug.
I found the matching FEMALE connector after searching for Spal PN 30130628 in Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CTDGNGT. This is the same plug used for the Spal aftermarket fans and the Jeep JK fan in this page.




2014-2019 Corvette C7 14 inch Brushless Fan
These fans were made by Spal for GM. It uses a 600 watt motor. It's more compact than all other brushless fans here. A 14 inch fan may seem small, but when used with a strong 600 watt motor, it's likely this fan will pull plenty of air.
GM part numbers 84486697, GM3115306
. This fan is also available as an aftermarket part made by TYC (China). TYC PN 624320.

This fan has been tested installed behind a radiator pulling 2916 CFM.
Source: corvetteforum.com/forums/4314951-dewitts-19-fan

This link doesn't have any Volvo content, but if you would like to see how this fan was fitted to a Honda S2000 radiator, see here:
s2ki.com/forums/corvette-brushless-fan

--  DIMENSIONS --


 
The connector on this fan is this 4-pole MALE plug. This 
fan uses 3 wires, so only three poles are used on that plug.
I found the matching FEMALE connector after searching for Spal PN 30130628 in Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CTDGNGT. This is the same plug used for the Spal aftermarket fans and the Jeep JK fan in this page.






JEEP JK "19 inch" (nope, 18 inch) Brushless Fan
Plus installation in my 240 is shown below.
This fan is found on 2012-2018 Jeep JK Wrangler vehicles with a 3.6 liter engine. I bought a new aftermarket version of this one and installed it in my car.


 
 
This fan is sometimes called the "Pentastar" fan on the internet. Some original factory fan labels are shown above. I believe the Mopar PN is
68143894AB, which I have not seen on any actual fan label. These labels above show the manufacturer as Johnson Electric and "Made in Italy." The original labels also show a date of manufacture, which will probably be sometime between 2011 and 2017.


AFTERMARKET VERSIONS of this fan are also available: Dorman 621-601 is available and at least one other aftermarket manufacturer (unknown who), which seem to be common on eBay.
I bought, tested and used this Dorman fan.

--  DIMENSIONS --

This fan will commonly be called a "19 inch Pentastar" by lots of people on the internet. The actual fan blade diameter is 18 inches. The outer ring on the fan blade is larger (19 inches across), but that outer ring does nothing to push air. 
NOTE ABOUT DIFFERENT BLADE COUNTS:
The above images (which I stole from the internet) show a 9 blade fan.  I bought a Dorman aftermarket fan. It has 7 blades. So I took a closer look at a number of used original Mopar fans on eBay and every one I found had 7 blades. So I'm not sure where the 9 blade fan is from. And I have no idea if 7 blades or 9 blades makes any difference in performance for this fan. I suspect not.

CONNECTOR

The connector on this fan is this 4-pole MALE plug. This fan has 3 wires, so only three poles on the plug are used.
The matching FEMALE connector may be found by searching for Spal PN 30130628 in Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CTDGNGT.
This is the same plug used for the Spal aftermarket fans and the Camaro fan in this page.
 
The below video from 2016 discusses this fan and compares it to the previous 17 inch brushed fan that this fan replaced in Jeeps beginning in 2012. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2so93C02W9Q


I tested the Dorman version of this fan. Dorman PN 621-601.
I don't know what the WATT RATING is for the Dorman motor on this fan, but it appears not as powerful as the Camaro fan. If I had to guess, I would say around 600w. This fan also ramps up a bit slower than the Camaro fan.
This fan has a STANDARD PWM ramp (Positive Polarity), which is opposite of the Camaro fan.
This means LOW speed begins when duty cycle is at 10% or higher. HIGH speed maximum is achieved at 85% or higher duty cycle.
THIS FAN REQUIRES A 10 Hz PWM FREQUENCY. 
I've been told a 10 Hz frequency is also used by Mercedes.
Jeep JK Brushless Fan Testing (2023)
I figured since I was installing this fan I'd do some extra testing.
A bunch of speed and CFM tests were done at two different voltage levels (12.7 volts on battery only and 14.5 volts with engine running and charging).
They were also done with the fan in FREE AIR and also INSTALLED/LOADED (installed results are in BOLD).
Free air means there are no obstructions (this fan pulled 5000 CFM). 
Installed/loaded
means there's a radiator, intercooler and AC condenser in front of the fan. This makes a big difference in airflow due to the restriction of the radiator, AC condenser and intercooler. 
Also of note, the lower 4 inches of the INSTALLED fan has a barrier that might have some minor obstructing affect. That barrier can be seen in the below installation photos.
Duty Cycle
RPM
at 12.7v
CFM
at 12.7v
Amps
at 12.7v
RPM
at 14.5v
CFM
at 14.5v
Amps
at 14.5v
10% Free Air
730 rpm
1180 cfm
1.3a
760 rpm
1280 cfm
1.25a
10% Installed/Loaded
730 rpm
800 cfm
2.7a
740 rpm
850 cfm
1.35a
15% Free Air
860 rpm
1360 cfm
1.8a
---
---
---
15% Installed/Loaded
---
---
---
---
---
---
20% Free Air
980 rpm
1750 cfm
2.5a



20% Installed/Loaded
1000 rpm
1100 cfm
2.7a
980 rpm
1150 cfm
2.7a
25% Free Air
1100 rpm
1900 cfm
3.5a
---
---
---
25% Installed/Loaded
---
---
---
---
---
---
30% Free Air
1225 rpm
2200 cfm
5.0a
---
---
---
30% Installed/Loaded
1280 rpm
1350 cfm
5.3a
1230 rpm
1420 cfm
4.7a
35% Free Air
1350 rpm
2450 cfm
7.0a
---
---
---
35% Installed/Loaded
---
---
---
---
---
---
40% Free Air
1475 rpm
2800 cfm
8.3a
---
---
---
40% Installed/Loaded
1475 rpm
1880 cfm
9.0a
1475 rpm
1720 cfm
7.6a
45% Free Air
1600 rpm
2900 cfm
11.0a
---
---
---
45% Installed/Loaded
---
---
---
---
---
---
50% Free Air
1720 rpm
3100 cfm
13.0a
1740 rpm
3200 cfm
11.0a
50% Installed/Loaded
1720 rpm
2200 cfm
14.2a
1720 rpm
2550 cfm
11.9a
55% Free Air
1840 rpm
3300 cfm
16a
---
---
---
55% Installed/Loaded
---
---
---
---
---
---
60% Free Air
1970 rpm
3500 cfm
19.8a
--- --- ---
60% Installed/Loaded
1970 rpm
2800 cfm
21.7a
1960 rpm
3000 cfm
17.8a
65% Free Air
2100 rpm
3800 cfm
24a
---
---
---
65% Installed/Loaded
---
---
---
---
---
---
70% Free Air
2200 rpm
4100 cfm
29a
---
---
---
70 % Installed/Loaded
2270 rpm
3200 cfm
31a
2200 rpm
3300 cfm
26a
75% Free Air
2320 rpm
4250 cfm
34a
---
---
---
75% Installed/Loaded
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
85% Free Air
2460 rpm
4600 cfm
40a
2580 rpm
5000 cfm
39.0a
85% Installed/Loaded
2420 rpm
3700 cfm
42.8a
2580 rpm
3800 cfm
43.5a
85% is MAXIMUM SPEED. This fan will run at values above 85%, but entering above 85% resulted in no appreciable increase in speed or power consumption.
It's interesting how in some tests this fan produced more air flow with less amp usage at 14.5 volts compared to 12.7 volts. It seems that brushless fans really like higher voltage levels.

  https://youtu.be/ZOdyyxAyGgw



Some installation photos for my Volvo.
Since this fan is taller than my 17 inch tall radiator, several inches of the shroud will hang below the radiator. So that portion must be sealed off with a barrier wall. 


I began with a piece of aluminum angle bar stock to give the barrier stability. It looks like it's really close to the blades in the above photo, but it's actually more than 1/2 inch.


Some thin aluminum sheeting was fitted.



Edges sealed with duct tape.


View from the front of the fan.


Electrical connection.


Top brackets made with some aluminum straps.



Lots of EXTRA room between the fan and engine. There's more room now, compared to the deeper Mark VIII fan I used to have in there.

This fan has been used in my car for about 3000 miles of cross-country driving in a variety of hot summer weather. Verdict: IT'S AWESOME. It needs very little power to keep things nice and cool.
Further installation info for this fan (and controller) can be found further below in the Fan Controller Section HERE.

If you're curious about my radiator, I had a new custom one made by Griffin Radiator in 2022.





Dual 12 inch Chevy Volt Brushless Fans
This fan assembly is found in a 2011-15 Chevy Volt.


These fans were made by Spal for GM, so an original Chevy Volt fan assembly will have a Spal label like these. Original PN: GM3115258.
Spal rates their 12 inch aftermarket brushless fans (PN VA89-ABL320P/N-94A) at 1800 CFM (at 13v) per fan, using about 23-27 amps at full speed (per fan). So I would expect this dual fan to pull up to about 3600 cfm.
There are also AFTERMARKET Chevy Volt fan assemblies that are made by Four Seasons or TYC.
TYC PN 623170: www.amazon.com/TYC-623170.

This fan assembly is too wide for most Volvo 240s, unless you have a much wider radiator than stock. Since this fan is popular among hot-rodders, the info is a good addition here.



The connectors on this are a 4-pole MALE plug. These fans have 3 wires each, so only three poles are used.
The matching FEMALE connector may be found by searching for Spal PN 30130628 in Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CTDGNGT.

Here's one of these fans being used for a project. 
s10forum.com/threads/brushless-spal-upgrade
This installer used a Widget Man controller.

Like other Spal OEM fans, THESE REQUIRE A 100 Hz PWM FREQUENCY and have Negative polarity.

Here's a video of these fans: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EYu5jVBvKA





Activating a Brushless Fan
You got to see a preview of one way a brushless fan can be activated in the Spal section above.
This section below will go into much more detail.

SIMPLIFIED BRUSHLESS FAN DIAGRAM

Keep in mind that there are a number of PWM fan speed controllers available now, however many are specifically made for DC BRUSHED FANS. Those controllers are not designed for use with a brushless fan, because the way they connect to a fan is very different. Brushed fans are not controlled the same as brushless fans.

If a brushed fan controller manufacturer claims theirs will work for both brushed and brushless motors, that should be questioned and verified. 
This question is discussed more in a section below.

Feel free to ask me for clarification or if you have a comment, please email:
CONTACT.

A BRUSHLESS DC motor has at least three wires.
1. Power to Battery Positive
2. Ground to Battery Negative or chassis ground.
3. PWM signal wire.
4. A 4th wire may be present on some brushless fans (Spal aftermarket for example).
It will probably be an "Analog" signal wire used for other options.


Controlled by a PWM SIGNAL
A PWM signal (Pulse Width Modulation) is used to communicate with a brushless fan. It uses a Frequency Speed combined with a Duty Cycle to activate and regulate fan speed.


A PWM signal is generated at a specific frequency, which is measured in Hertz (Hz).
A Hertz frequency will be measured by the number of cycles in one second. The above example is 10 cycles in a second, so this would be a frequency of 10 Hz.
A 10 Hz frequency is used by the Jeep JK brushless fan and also by Mercedes Benz. A 100 Hz frequency is used by Spal and Volvo fans (and some others).

 

A simple explanation of a duty cycle is to think of it this way. (ABOVE IMAGE): A 25% duty cycle can be viewed as a voltage signal that quickly pulses 25% ON and then 75% OFF.
The fan speed is changed or regulated by the duty cycle varying the ON-OFF relationship. It can be changed to vary between ZERO% and 100% ON.

AN EXCEPTION: Some brushless fans (so far only Spal aftermarket that I know of) can be connected to run WITHOUT any controller or any PWM signal. In these cases the fan will just run at full speed. For all other brushless fans a controller with a PWM signal is needed to activate it or regulate speed.

POLARITY:
Some brushless fans are designed to accept a POSITIVE polarity duty cycle signal. Some are designed to use a NEGATIVE polarity duty cycle signal.

If you see a fan which speeds up as the duty cycle is increased, then that fan has POSITIVE POLARITY. This type of fan reads and responds to the voltage "ON" portion of the signal at the TOP of the duty cycle.
Some fans have NEGATIVE POLARITY.
This type of fan will slow down as the duty cycle is increased. This type of fan reads and responds to the voltage "OFF" portion of the signal at the BOTTOM of the duty cycle.
--------------------------
Can a NEGATIVE Polarity Fan be used with a POSITIVE Polarity PWM signal?
No, it should not be used that way, however there are ways to convert it. It's possible to 
INVERT the polarity of a PWM signal. There are some devices in this page  SHOWN HERE which can do this.

In the below video, an inexpensive PWM signal generator is used to test and run a 2010-2012 Ford Fusion brushless fan. The user has the frequency set for 100 Hz. Then he activates and varies the fan speed by reducing or increasing the duty cycle to different percent levels. As mentioned previously, some fans use an INVERTED PWM signal (Negative Polarity). This one in the video is a good example of that. This fan comes on at 85 or 90% (slow speed) and then speeds up as the duty cycle is reduced, with full speed at or near 10% duty cycle.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMEXpVuxNhk



Activating a BRUSHLESS Fan using a BRUSHED Fan Controller???
Can you activate a BRUSHLESS fan using a controller designed for a BRUSHED fan?  I don't know for sure YET, but my first thought was probably NOT.
Am i WRONG?

I began using an AutoCoolGuy controller for my Mark VIII brushed fan in 2018. More about that is in the Cooling Fan Project Page 1 HERE.
If you look at the Autocoolguy site, he claims (ABOVE) his controllers can control BRUSHED or BRUSHLESS fans.
Since I don't know, I began asking questions.
Darryl at Autocoolguy told me that if you have a brushless fan, which can be made to run at full-speed (like a normal fan) by connecting certain wires to power and ground, then the fan speed can be controlled using an Autocoolguy controller.

From my research so far, the only BRUSHLESS fans that can be made to run at full-speed this way are those with FOUR WIRES (such as Spal aftermarket).
A 4-wire fan has two smaller wires; a PWM wire and an Analog wire. If you review the below linked document for Spal Drive Control Modes, it will explain how a Spal aftermarket brushless fan (which has 4 wires) may be connected without a controller or sensor in a number of specific ways. Some of these connections will force the fan to run at full-speed (similar to any normal DC brushed fan). 
spalautomotive.it/DRIVE+CONTROL+MODES.pdf
Two such listed "Drive Modes" (Interface Mode 1 and Interface Mode 2) are activated by connecting the power and ground cables normally, then the Analog wire is connected to the power cable and the PWM wire is connected to the ground cable. 

 
When I sent a follow-up email to Darryl at Autocoolguy and asked him if he could provide any more specific information on how his controllers will connect to and regulate brushless speed in this situation, he stopped responding to me. So my only guess is he means for his controller to be connected to the fan MAYBE in the same manner as a brushed fan, using the ground cable to the fan as the PWM speed regulator???.  Hopefully a brushless fan will respond to this as he thinks it will? It would be a shame if this caused problems or damage to a brushless fan.  Also the question of polarity comes to mind.  I would love to offer a better explanation here, but he's no longer responds to my emails.
THE CORRECT ANSWER IS STILL NOT KNOWN.
If anyone knows more, please email me:
CONTACT.
 


BRUSHLESS FAN CONTROLLERS
There are a number of aftermarket modern engine management systems that will offer programmed (or programmable) PWM signal outputs for activating a brushless fan. Some of them can be fully customized.  Also some OEM engine management systems will offer this, such as GM LS engine systems.  I will not be going into detail on these, since there's a lot of info and each system is different. 
Delta PAG Brushless Controller
Spal Aftermarket Brushless Fans
Lingenfelter Brushless Controller
Widget Man Brushless Controller

DELTA-PAG
I've listed detailed information about the Delta-PAG brushless controller in the above Delta-PAG section. I have not personally tried one of these fans or controllers. I would welcome your comments if you have any to offer.




SPAL
I have already discussed the Spal "Smart" Sensors in a previous section. Those are designed for Spal Plus aftermarket brushless fans, but they may be used for other brushless fans, as long as they use a 100 Hz PMW frequency and a STANDARD duty cycle ramp (Positive Polarity). These sensors will generally NOT be compatible with a number of OEM style brushless fans with negative polarity, unless you use a device that can modify or invert the polarity, such as these devices HERE. 




Lingenfelter VSFM-002 Variable Speed Brushless Fan & Pump Temperature & Speed Controller
Lingenfelter offers a programmable controller:lingenfelter.com/L460320002.html
They have a detailed PDF user manual at: lingenfelter.com/PDF/L460320002.pdf.
Size of this controller is 3.6 x 4.3 inches. The below diagram was found in their user guide.

This controller appears to be quite versatile in that a large number of difference OEM and aftermarket temperature sensors can be used with it. It can be made to control a wide variety of brushless fans from a number of different manufacturers, including OEM fans from Spal or Bosch or most other makers.
It offers the option of an override or FULL-SPEED switch. If you need an AC override, it will trigger a fan to run at FULL-SPEED when the AC is activated. 

The only draw-back I see for this controller is that the AC override DOES NOT OFFER an ability to select any speed other than FULL-SPEED. If I'm using a super high-output fan, I prefer to not have it run at FULL-SPEED unless necessary. It might not be necessary to use a big, powerful fan at FULL-SPEED when using AC. Having an option for something less extreme for the AC, such as 50% speed, would be nice. 

The below video was made by a shop who does custom engine installations in Jeeps. They show a special version of the Lingenfelter controller, which appears to have been created by Lingenfelter for them with a custom feature, which offers an optional fan AC override to operate at 30% when activated. This shop does not offer this controller in their web store, so I don't know if it's available. If available, the only draw-back would be this change appears to eliminate the FULL-SPEED override toggle switch as an option if you prefer to keep that.

I have emailed Lingenfelter a few times to ask a few questions and they don't respond.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4tlqvVu_Vg





I began using one of these in 2023 for the Jeep brushless fan.

Widget Man Universal Brushless Fan Controller (and other devices).
When I first saw this item on eBay I was skeptical, mostly because the price was low.  After reading more about it, and after thoroughly reading the extensive instructions, I thought it was worth a try to see what it could do.
So I bought one.


One feature that helped my decision was an optional (Force-On) feature which can be selected for 50% fan override when the AC is activated.  I've mentioned previously how such a feature was missing from most other brushless fan controllers.
This is an optional setting where you can trigger either a FULL-SPEED override or a 50% override. If the 50% override is triggered (such as for the AC "ON" circuit), the fan will run 50% higher than the current speed setting.  So for example, this means if the fan speed is "OFF" (engine not warm yet), then the 50% override will run the fan at 50%.  If the fan is running at 20%, then the 50% override increases it to 70%. Nice feature.

Also the seller was VERY RESPONSIVE to emails and he's been offering great suggestions. This has been very refreshing to someone like me who was still in a steep learning mode when it came to brushless fans and I certainly had some questions.

This item (Universal PWM Fan or Pump Controller) can be found at: https://www.ebay.com/itm/143561612623
Direct link for PDF instructions:
https://drive.google.com/file/d/pli=1
 

Other devices from this seller can be found at
https://www.ebay.com/str/gkgoodcheapparts
.
This controller is typically referred as an "FPM" in the Widget Man literature (maybe refers to "Fan Pump Module?").


In addition to the above controller, I purchased
a universal temperature sensor and an adjustable power supply.

This universal temp sensor is not necessary. You can easily use almost any factory or aftermarket sensor with the Widget Man controller, but I thought I just might want to try this sensor.
In the end I did not use this sensor. I used my original Volvo coolant temp sender in my engine instead.
This Widget Man RTD Temperature Sensor above is basically a universal sensor, which can be used instead of using a temp sensor you might already have in your car: https://www.ebay.com/itm/143563314206.
I bought it to learn how it works, in case it became a good option for this project or maybe this info will help someone else who sees this. In the end I didn't use this sensor. If you're curious, an RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) is a passive device in which the resistance output changes as temperature changes. The resistance vs temperature relationship is reliable and repeatable. This sensor requires power. That power should be a consistent voltage if possible. If your charging system voltage at the battery moves around with load changes (more than a few tenth of a volt), a sensor like this would benefit from a stable regulated power supply. The below device could be considered.

Widget Man says this sensor can be placed anywhere, but they recommend the placement to be near an existing coolant sensor or near the thermostat housing.
Alternately, you can use many other factory or aftermarket sensors with the controller. I ultimately decided to use the VDO Volvo temp gauge sender in the cylinder head of my 240, which is shown a bit further below.
 
Adjustable Power Supply

This Widget Man adjustable power supply above is an optional item
https://www.ebay.com/itm/143083402375. It's not required, but it can be useful if you think you need to stabilize voltage to your controller.
I DID use one of these power supplies as you'll see.
This power supply is typically referred as a "CTAS" in Widget Man literature. It can be used to provide a stabilized voltage level for the fan controller input, or for any 12v device (consuming under 1 amp). It's output is adjustable from 1.25 to 12.55 volts. A stabilized voltage level may not be needed for every car, but if you find that your car system voltage can fluctuate more than a few tenths of a volt when the alternator is under load, then it can make sense to provide an even voltage level to these devices for better consistency.

I used this power supply to provide a stable 12 volts to the fan controller. This way the controller would not experience any voltage fluctuations, which can be a pretty common thing in an old Volvo.

A good example of using this power supply for something different is how I also tried one out for a 240 gauge cluster to replace a failed 10v regulator. All 240 gauge clusters have a small 10v voltage regulator, which provides regulated 10v power to the temp and fuel gauges. I discovered the original regulator was not working as it should on a spare gauge cluster I had. This power supply fixed that perfectly. More on that is HERE in my Gauge Electrical Page.

BACK TO THE FAN CONTROLLER
Here's a diagram below I made showing the use of the Widget Man fan controller for a brushless fan. Plus I added the power supply and an an optional/alternate use of the universal temp sensor.  The temp sensor I used is the VDO Volvo factory temperature sender, since I think that turned out to be a better choice for my Volvo.
   
The FORCE-ON function may be activated TWO WAYS.
1.  When 12v is present at the Force-On input, or . . .
2.  When an open circuit is present.
Force-On will be deactivated when a GROUND is present. The AC clutch circuit will provide a ground circuit when it's OFF.
The optional dash override switch wired as shown above will create an open circuit when switched ON, which turns on the fan to the set Force-On speed (50% or Full Speed).     


Volvo Coolant Temp Sender (for 240 dash temp gauge).


The below tests may seem unnecessary to many of you, but I was curious about the readings coming from that COOLANT SENDER.
This VOLTAGE test is not the same as an OHM test. An Ohm test is for sender calibration only. This test was done to find out the voltage values between the 240 temp sender and the temp gauge.  The temp gauge needle reacts to these voltage changes.
When it receives MORE voltage, the needle goes DOWN (colder).  Less voltage and it goes up (hotter).

This test was done on a kitchen counter using a 12 volt DC power supply and with the sender immersed in heated water. These values were used to decide if I should use a 5v or 12v sensor input setting on the Widget Man fan controller (this setting is selected with dip-switch 6). The 5v setting is the best option because it has higher resolution, but if the fan TURN-ON point and FULL-SPEED point that I would be choosing were found to be over 5v, then the 12v setting needed to be used. In this case below, all values were over 5v, so the 12v sensor setting on the controller was appropriate for a 240.
1984 Volvo 240 cluster temp gauge to sender voltage. Voltage readings were taken at the sender output.
This sender is a new VDO Volvo 460191
. Input voltage to the cluster was set at 12.8v (typical battery voltage).
SENDER TEMP °F
VOLTAGE

77.3
10.00
Room temperature.
90
9.16

100
9.00

110
8.82

120
8.57

130
8.32

140
8.08

150
7.69

160
7.31
1/4 needle at 160-165 F.
170
6.86

180
6.59
1/2 needle was at 185 F.
190
6.32

200
5.90

210
5.63
Almost 3/4 needle. Just below RED.

Side Note about BROKEN Used Volvo Senders I found: My 240 uses the above VDO Volvo sender (Volvo PN 460191).  I had some used ones in my parts bin, which I was pretty sure worked when I got them years ago. I tested them with an Ohm meter, but I couldn't get any readings.  It was like the sensors weren't connected inside at all. I questioned my Ohm meter until tried a different meter. Then I ordered a new sender and that worked fine.

MORE Notes about this Coolant Temp Sender VDO/Volvo PN 460191.
This sender image below represents the original factory calibration numbers. This should be consistent if you're using a FACTORY VDO/Volvo part.  You should know that if you purchase an FAE aftermarket sender (available from iPd), that it's not calibrated the same. On later cars with functioning temperature compensation boards, this may not be noticeable, but on early cars or on cars with bypassed compensation boards, an FAE sender will put the needle slightly higher at operating temperature.  This is why I bought a new GENUINE VOLVO sender when I needed one.


 
Here are some OTHER devices from Widget Man which might come in handy for brushless fan conversions.

This PWM Frequency / Polarity Changer may be useful for getting a 10Hz positive fan (Jeep or Mercedes for example) to work with
a GM LS ECM, which needs a 100Hz negative frequency . This device lets you arbitrarily multiply or divide the Hertz rate and INVERT the polarity if needed.  The only thing it won't do is adjust the off, on, and max speed thresholds.  https://www.ebay.com/itm/143638043684.


This Sine-to-Square Digital Signal Converter (SQC2) is an inexpensive assembly of transistors, which can invert the polarity or shift voltage levels on an existing PWM signal. https://www.ebay.com/itm/143103138738.


MY INSTALLATION:
  Widget Man devices are sealed or potted, except for the dip switches on the fan controller. Those switches can be vulnerable to moisture, which could disable the controller. If the fan controller is to be placed in an engine bay, Widget Man recommends that the dip switches be sealed with RTV after the setup is complete. I didn't want to put sealer on the switches and I felt it would be a better idea to further protect these devices by putting them in an enclosure. The fan controller and voltage regulator are attached to the bottom of this box with some double-sided tape.

This box is advertised as "waterproof." The top comes with a silicone gasket in a recessed channel, so it should do pretty well. Widget Man suggested that I smear some dielectric grease on the dip switches after installation to add a little extra protection. These devices are rated for 225° F. It's best to place it
in less hot area in the engine bay, not near a hot exhaust or turbo. This controller produces very little heat on its own, so internal heat will not be an issue inside a box.  Amazon sells this box and has it in a number of different sizes: amazon.com/dp/B07S6PKW2L
The cable exit uses an inexpensive plastic gland nut that required a 7/16 inch drilled hole. I used the smallest size gland nut in this assortment: amazon.com/dp/B01GJ03AUQ

During installation and INITIAL PROGRAMMING of this in the car, I decided to write down the steps I took for my own future reference. I'm adding it here for anyone doing a similar installation using the same controller.
1.    Controller was wired according to instructions and the Force-On terminal was GROUNDED. It must be grounded for this procedure. Dip switch 7 was set to ON (left) for a fan test.
2.    Engine was started and idling. LED began flashing FAST Yellow and fan slowly ramped up to full speed. This was a good first test to confirm the fan was working so far.
3.    Moved Dip Switch 7 to OFF (right), where it will be for normal running. The next steps will involve temp learning.

4.    As the engine began to warm, I held down the GREEN button until the LED began SLOW flashing RED (low-temp learning mode).

5.    I monitored the engine temp using an IR temp reader pointed to the top radiator hose near the thermostat. And I occasionally checked my dash gauge. I waited for my desired low-temp set point, which I decided would be about 175°F. I chose this set point because the temp gauge would be just below the middle at that reading.
6.    Then I quickly pressed the GREEN button. The LED changed to solid YELLOW. This confirmed the low-temp set point had been programmed.
7.    As engine continued to warm, I held down the RED button until LED began FAST flashing RED (high-temp learning mode).
8.    I monitored the engine temp again and when it reached a desired high temp point (about 200° F), I quickly pressed the RED button. The LED changed to solid GREEN, confirming the high-temp set point had been programmed. The fan began working immediately and it slowly began to bring the engine temp down to normal.

After watching the fan and dash gauge in action for a while, I decided I wanted to re-adjust the low-temp set point to a slightly LOWER setting.
1.    I moved Dip Switch 7 to ON (left). This allowed the fan to slowly ramp up to high speed and it began to bring the temp down to a point below my first low-temp set point.
2.    I monitored the engine temp and after the gauge showed the temp below my new low-temp set point, I moved Dip Switch 7 back to OFF (right). The fan turned off and engine temp began slowly rising again.
3.    As I waited for the engine to warm again, I held down the GREEN button until the LED began SLOW flashing RED (low-temp learning mode).
4.    I waited for my new desired low-temp set point and then quickly pressed the GREEN button. The LED changed to solid GREEN. The low-temp set point had been re-set and the learn settings were complete.

When programming is complete, remove the GROUND from the Force-On terminal.

AC Activation Notes (fan FORCE-ON).

In reference to the AC compressor circuit being connected to the Force-On pin in the controller, I thought this deserved a good explanation just in case you were curious.
The Force-On circuit is near the bottom in the above image.  It turns ON when 12V is present or when an open circuit is present. It stays OFF when a ground is present. So for this function to work as I wanted, I needed 12V when AC is ON and a GROUND when AC is OFF. The AC clutch power wire will provide exactly what is needed, since it provides a ground when the compressor is off. Here's more explanation: The coil winding in an AC clutch offers about 3~12 ohms resistance when off. This low resistance translates to enough continuity to be called a GROUND when the power is OFF. It would not be enough of a ground for a power device, but for digital signaling purposes that's sufficient for a ground.
So this AC clutch circuit totally works perfectly for the Force-On function.

Here's a couple pics showing the new controller in it's enclosure and mounted.

ROAD TRIP TESTING

This controller was tested with the Jeep fan in a 3000 mile cross-country trip in hot summer weather.  It worked flawlessly and my gauge temperature stayed just below the middle ALWAYS, in any climate and going up any grade forever.



Methods Used to Test Brushless Fans
Keep in mind that most fan manufacturers are rating their advertised CFM tests to reflect a fan that is attached to a radiator, which in theory, restricts and reduces airflow by some amount. How is that simulated? Can there be any consistency? Who knows? So testing a fan yourself might be the best way to find the truth.
These items below are what I've been using to test fans. If you use something else and you want to share that info, feel free to email me:
CONTACT

Most brushless fans cannot simply be connected to a battery to make them run for testing. This PWM signal generator below may be used to activate and run a brushless fan at any speed.
  There are FOUR connections. 
The left two wires are the battery power and chassis ground.
The PWM wire on the fan is connected to the PWM slot shown above on the right. The extra GND wire next to the PWM slot can be grounded also, but in most cases it doesn't need to be. It's a ground specifically for the PWM signal. So if you have this signal generator connected to the same battery as the fan, then the extra ground is not needed. In some lab settings, the power and ground for a brushless motor may be from a different source than the power/ground for this device.  In those cases the extra PWM ground would be needed. If you have a fan which you're unsure of the frequency needed, it will usually be just fine you need to experiment with different frequencies to find a frequency or frequency range the fan will accept.
PWM Signal Generator. Price: $14.00 https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07P848DYQ


 
Fan speed (RPM) testing was done using an inexpensive hobby optical tachometer above: Turnigy Micro Tachometer. This meter can be set to measure 2 to 9 blade fans. It was priced under $20.00.


Amperage usage was measured using this Digital 0 to 100 Amp meter. Price: $15.00. amazon.com/DROK-Digital-Multimeter


My CFM airflow testing was done using an Aiomest AN-846A anemometer.
Price: $69.00 amazon.com/dp/B088QZ3689

  
This is the same airflow meter used by Fast Monty's Garage in this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYkuNP1RnoM&t=26s. The same fan area calculation methods were used for my testing.
If you watch Fast Monty's video, you'll probably have to pause and re-watch this math calculations a few times.  It's a but much for a normal human brain. So I've placed the easier calculation steps I used below.
CFM Meter Calculation:
Begin with the (actual) fan diameter: 18 inches, for example.

1/2 of that is the radius: 9 inches.
9 ÷ 12 = 0.75.
0.75² (or 0.75 x 0.75) = 0.5625.
0.5625 x 3.14159 (Pi) = 1.767.
1.767 is the sq.ft. area of an 18 inch fan.
Now we must calculate the center hub area.
I used 7.4 inches for the Jeep fan.
1/2 of 7.4 = 3.7 (radius).
3.7
÷ 12 = 0.308.
0.308
² (or 0.308 x 0.308) = 0.0948.
0.0948 x 3.14159 (Pi) = 0.2978.
0.2978 is the sq.ft. area of the center hub.
Now deduct the hub area from the fan area.
1.767 - 0.2978 = 1.469 (sq.ft.). 1.469 is the final result of the fan area.
So now you can set the meter on 'CFM' and enter your calculation. I entered the rounded number of 1.47 below for the FT
² setting.



If you have any questions, comments or find any potential concerns, please send me an email: CONTACT.






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