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     UPDATED: September 29, 2022                       CONTACT       
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 Why is a 240 special?
 
If you read the TEXT in this ad you'll realize the intercooler description is technically INCORRECT.  I guess ad writers and engineers didn't talk to each other much.  We still love the 240.
I've been a fan of 240s since before I ever owned my first one in 1990. The TURBOS were too expensive for me when they were new, so I had to buy one of those later.


If you have an affection for the 240 or wonder why so many people do, read Chris Driver's blog linked below.
I think you'll share a similar opinion.

https://www.hardbarned.com/blog/my-volvo-240-wagon-slow-heavy-practical-timeless

And here's a good video: Why the Volvo 240 is Actually a Good Enthusiast Car + Walkthrough and Drive
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNq-AoqukLI

240 VIN Decoding Page
https://www.240turbo.com/240vin.html

240 SPECS:
The below image (reproduced from the 1983 US and Canada brochure below) shows the specifications for 1983 240 models.



240 Model Sales Brochure 1983


240 Accessory Brochure


I'm a Volvo 240 hobbyist. 
I've been playing with Volvos (mostly 240s) since 1988.  My pages here are an attempt to share my experiences with other Volvo enthusiasts and to chronicle the knowledge and information I've gathered over the years so it may be passed on to others.

I've owned 10 Volvos since 1988.  I'll show you some of them below . . . .

This was my second Volvo (first 240). A white 1983 244 DL.  I bought it in 1990 and it died in 1996. 

A non-sunroof 240 DL with roll-up windows, auto trans, marginal AC, fair gas mileage (20 mpg highway). 
This 240 was exceptionally clean with only 50k miles when I found it in 1990 in Huntington Beach, CA. Cost me $5,000. 

Already being an avid iPd
customer, it soon got their anti-sway bars, sport springs and Bilstein HD shocks, as well and a few other fun goodies. 
I lalso bought the back half of a 240 Turbo exhaust and installed it on this car from the cat-back. That gave a small improvement for response and gas mileage. More 240 exhaust stuff can be found in my 240 Exhaust Page.

I
t originally came with 14 inch steels wheels with beauty rings and hubcaps.  I installed those newer 15 inch alloy wheels from my '88 760.  I drove this car everywhere for 6
years and put over 100,000 miles on it.  In 1996 I gave it to my daughter when she got her drivers license.  Unfortunately it was destroyed a few months later when some nit-wit pulled out directly in front of her in a Chevy Caprice. She couldn't avoid the Caprice and hit it broadside at about 50 mph. 
ARTICLE: How I survived teen drivers CLICK HERE.



Here's my CURRENT 240 as it looked when I bought it back in 2003.

I bought this 1984 242 Turbo from the 3rd owner. He bought it only 6 months earlier in 2002 from Owner #2.
 The original paint and leather interior was in rare exceptional condition because the car had always been garaged.
It's a big bonus for an old car like this to have live indoors its whole life. It's why this was so nice for this many years. 

 This 242 was mostly stock, but it did come with iPd sport springs, iPd 25mm anti-sway bars and Bilstein HD shocks. I actually helped the previous owner install those things a few months before he sold the car to me.
Otherwise nearly everything was original.


 

This car was all very original and stock when I got it. This is an under-hood shot taken at the 2003 Annual Westside Volvo Show at Westside Volvo in Culver City, California. 



 I resisted the urge to modify this car for a few years, but slowly that urge began to win. So it has undergone a few changes over the years.

My 240 originally came with an AW71 automatic transmission. I have always preferred a manual transmission in a cars like this, but a nice 240 Turbo with a manual transmission was not easy to find.
Eventually my original
auto transmission totally failed more than 100 miles from home (during a road-trip to the annual Davis Volvo Show in Calif.). 
I called for a flatbed tow (having a premi
er AAA account was a great decision) and the car was sent back home while I hitched a ride in friend's Volvo who was also on his way to Davis.

If two pedals are good, three must be better!
This is an M46 4-speed plus overdrive transmission. I pulled this transmission from a wrecked 1983 242 Turbo.
  After the automatic transmission failed, I was forever soured on automatic transmissions, so I swore them off and replaced
it with this M46 4-speed plus overdrive transmission.


That 1983 M46 came with a Type J OD, which had a cable speedometer output.  Later transmissions may not have a cable output, since Volvo stopped using speedo cables after 1985.
The M46 was used in 240 models through 1987. The 1988 and later 240s with manual transmissions received the new M47. The M47 does not come with a speedo cable output.
740 Turbo (and 740 16 valve) models with manual transmissions would still get the M46 through 1990, because it was stronger than the M47. The M46 then became obsolete after 1990.



REAR END INFO
Considering my 1984 240 Turbo originally had an automatic transmission, the rear end ratio for MY CAR was 3.91:1.
 A manual transmission 1984 240 would have received a different rear end ratio of 3.73:1. 
More 240 rear end stuff can be found in my REAR END PAGE if you're interested.

YOUR Trans/Rear End Combo May Vary
Rear end ratios were NOT consistent for the 240 over the years, so I have begun compiling what I could find in Volvo documentation. You should consider your particular rear end ratio when planning for any transmission swap.
240 Rear End Ratios for USA and Canada
For many 240s the rear end ratio was different depending on your transmission. This info was taken from Volvo "New Car Features" Greenbooks and Owner's Manuals. Some anomalies are certainly possible, so feel free to check yours closely.
YEAR
Specification
Ratio, Auto Trans
Ratio, Manual Trans
1975
B20F D-Jet (242, 244)
4.10 BW35
4.10 M40, M41
1975
B20F D-Jet (245)
4.30 BW35
4.30 M40, M41
1976
B21F K-Jet
3.91 BW55
3.91 with M45
1976
B21F K-Jet
3.91 BW55
4.10 with M46
1976
B21F K-Jet  California
4.10 BW55
4.10 M45, M46
1977
B21F K-Jet
3.91 AW55, BW55
3.91 M45, M46
1978
B21F K-Jet
3.91 AW55 (245 BW55)
3.91 M45, M46
1978
B21A Carb  Canada
3.91 BW55
3.91 M45, M46
1979
B21F K-Jet
3.73 AW55
3.91 M45, M46
1979
B21A Carb  Canada
3.73 BW55
3.91 M45, M46
1980
B21F K-Jet
3.73 AW55 (245 BW55)
3.91 M45, M46
1980
B21A Carb Canada
3.73 BW55
3.91 M45, M46
1981
B21F K-Jet
3.73 AW55 (245 BW55)
3.73 M45, M46
1981
B21F-MPG K-Jet
3.54 AW55
3.54 M46
1981
B21A Carb, B23E  Canada
3.73 BW55
3.91 M45, M46
1981
B23E K-Jet  Canada
3.54 BW55
3.73 M45, M46
1981
B21F GLT
N/A
3.91 M46
1981
B21FT Turbo
N/A
3.73 M46
1981
D24 Diesel
3.31 BW55
3.54 M46
1981
D24 Diesel  Canada
3.54 BW55
3.73 M46
1982
B21A Carb  Canada
3.54 BW55 3.54 M45, M46
1982
B23E K-Jet  Canada
3.54 BW55
3.73 M46
1982
B21F K-Jet or LH EFI
3.91 AW70
3.54 M46
1982
B21FT Turbo
3.73 AW71
3.73 M46
1982
D24 Diesel
3.31 BW55
3.54 M46
1983
B21A Carb Canada
3.54 BW55 3.54 M46
1983
B23E K-Jet Canada
3.54 BW55
3.73 M46
1983
B21FT Turbo
3.91 AW71
3.73 M46
1983
B23F-LH
3.73 AW70
3.31 M46
1983
D24 Diesel
3.31 BW55
3.54 M46
1984
B21FT Turbo
3.91 AW71
3.73 M46
1984
B23F-LH
3.73 AW70
3.31 M46
1984
D24 Diesel
3.31 BW55
3.54 M46
1985
B230F LH 2.2
3.73 AW70
3.31 M46
1985
B21FT Turbo
3.91 AW71
3.73 M46
1985
D24 Diesel
3.31 BW55
3.54 M46
1986
B230F LH 2.2
3.73 AW70
3.31 M46
1987
B230F LH 2.2
3.73 AW70
3.31 M47
1988
B230F LH 2.2
3.73 AW70
3.31 M47
1989
B230F LH 2.4
3.73 AW70
3.31 M47
1990
B230F LH 2.4
3.73 AW70
3.31 M47
1991
B230F LH 2.4
3.73 AW70
3.31 M47
1992
B230F LH 2.4
3.73 AW70
3.31 M47
1993
B230F LH 2.4
3.73 AW70
3.31 M47


 EIKERS (2004-2012)
 
The Eiker E1 wheels seen in some of my photos here were imported from Finland in 2004. These are 17 x 7.5 inches (offset ET 20 mm) and were modeled after the Volvo Polaris wheel. I originally fitted 215/45-17 tires.
Back in 2004
the Eiker Wheel Company would not ship to U.S. customers, so a Finnish friend arranged for a relative of his to purchase and ship them from Finland. I loved these wheels and at that time this was the only way to get them. Almost no one else in the U.S. had them yet.  Years later these wheels became more popular and some importers managed to bring them to the U.S. in large quantities. The Eiker E1 started appearing on other 240s at a faster rate.

CENTER CAPS FOR EIKER WHEELS
Back in 2004 I used the generic 62 mm "EIKER" plastic center caps that came with these wheels and I glued on round Volvo logos that I cut off of other Volvo caps.  I get questions all the time now from people with Eikers who have trouble finding an existing and available VOLVO cap that will fit. When you search, keep in mind that some discussions will pertain to original Polaris wheels, which seem to have a 57 mm center bore, which is NOT the same size as an Eiker wheel, which reportedly has a 56 mm hole.  An original Polaris wheel used center cap Volvo PN 3529610 (of course no longer available). 

There's some info on-line that suggests VOLVO center cap PN 30638643 (pictured HERE) from a first generation S40 (2001-2004) will supposedly fit an Eiker wheel.  This does NOT appear to be correct according to some people I know who bought and tried them. The 30638643 is made for a 55 mm hole and is rather loose in an Eiker wheel.

If anyone knows FOR CERTAIN of an existing AVAILABLE cap that actually fits well in an Eiker, please let me know and I'll add that here.
I have some measurements of a few different common VOLVO center caps here:
https://www.prancingmoose.com/centercaps.html#commoncaps

Here are some discussions thread that will add to your confusion:
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=244307
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?p=6059650
http://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=280569


MANUAL TRANSMISSION UPGRADE
  Fearing the M46 would eventually break from too much torque, I decided to install a
Ford Motorsport World Class T5Z 5-speed transmission. 

I bought this transmission brand new from Summit Racing in 2004 (about $1300 back then). It's pretty much the same as this one from Summit Racing: https://www.summitracing.com/parts/rem-1352-000-251

The Ford T5 transmission was originally used for 1979 to 1993 Ford Mustangs. It was originally manufactured by Borg Warner. In 1997 Tremec bought Borg Warner's transmission division, so transmissions made after 1997 were marked "TREMEC." The input shaft on the Ford V8 model has 10 splines (1.0625" diameter). The output shaft has 28 splines. The rear T5 slip yoke uses a 1330 series U-joint, which
measures 3.625 inches wide. These U-joint bearing caps are 1.0625 inch diameter.

The T5 has a 7 tooth cable speedometer drive gear output. I adapted a modified Volvo speedo cable

T5 Gear ratios:

First Gear:
2.95:1
Second Gear:
1.94:1
Third Gear:
1.34:1
Fourth Gear:
1.00:1
Fifth Gear:
0.63:1*
*My new T5 originally came with the 0.63 ratio 5th gear. I was ultimately not very happy with this ratio.
Cruising in 5th gear with my low compression B21FT felt like my car was lugging at highway speeds, especially below 3000 rpm.
There were some other 5th gear ratios available for this transmission over the years. I was able to locate a new 5th gear set that would convert my 0.63 5th gear to 0.73, which I then had installed by a transmission shop.

I should explain that a 5th gear set for this transmission is made up of two matched gears. One is a countershaft gear and one is a mainshaft gear (photo shown). For the overdrive ratio to be correctly calculated, certain 5th gear sets must be chosen according to the existing FIRST gear ratio. My 1st gear was 2.95:1.
 
The original 0.63 5th gear that came in the transmission meant the matched gears it came with was a 51 tooth countershaft gear and a 25 tooth mainshaft gear. The new 5th gear set needed to convert it to 0.73:1 consisted of a 55 tooth countershaft gear and a 31 tooth mainshaft gear. The table below will help you understand how these combinations work and how different 5th gear sets will turn out depending on which 1st gear ratio is already installed.
5th gear tooth count (countershaft/mainshaft)
53/33
55/31
51/25
59/27
2.95 first gear
0.80 OD
0.73 OD
0.63 OD
0.59 OD
3.35 first gear
0.92 OD
0.83 OD
0.72 OD
0.68 OD
The above overdrive table info was found in How to Rebuild and Modify Your Manual Transmission, by Robert Bowen, page 86.
It should be noted that T5 transmissions were made for both Ford cars and for GM cars. T5 transmissions from both makes had different optional 5th gear ratios. All Ford World Class (WC) T5s came with a 28 spline output shaft, while the GM WCT5 transmissions had a 27 spline output shaft. This is important to note, because the mainshaft gear used in a 5th gear set must have the same spline count as the output shaft. So a mainshaft gear for a GM transmission will not
fit in a Ford transmission. 

After installation, I found the new 0.73 overdrive to be a much better ratio for a small Volvo engine with low compression like my B21FT (7.5:1 static compression ratio).
 
Rear differential 3.91:1, tire size 215/45-17 (about 24.6 inches tall)
SPEED
60 mph
75 mph
90 mph
T5 0.63 5th
2000 rpm
2500 rpm
3000 rpm
T5 0.73 5th
2300 rpm
2850 rpm
3450 rpm
old M46 0.79 5th
2500 rpm
3125 rpm
3750 rpm
Since these changes I have changed to a taller tire size: 225/45-17 (about 24.9 inches tall). This lowered the rpm at 75 mph a small amount from about 2850 to about 2800.



SPEEDOMETER CABLE

I chose to keep the old school speedo cable in my car, however most 240's out there nowadays (1986 and later) will have an electric speedo (with of course requires a VSS in the rear end).
The T5 conveniently has a mechanical speedo cable output port shown above.


I found a Ford T5 speedo cable in a salvage yard and cut off the transmission end shown below. Then I removed the end from a Volvo 240 cable. The ends are simply pushed or crimped onto the plastic sheath, so removing them was not hard. Then I grafted the Volvo cable sheath to the Ford end, making certain the square inner drive cable came through far enough to engage that red plastic gear. This has worked perfectly for many years.



 
THE DECLINE OF T5 SPARE PARTS AVAILABILITY
While new (and used) T5 transmissions are still available, many of the transmission parts that were easy to find years ago have begun to vanish.  Searching now I cannot find any sources for the 5th overdrive gear set I used for my conversion to 0.73.  The only 5th gear sets that seem to be available now for a T5 with 2.95 first gear are the original 0.63 sets (mostly used ones) or the 0.80 set, known as a "road race" or "Sebring" gears.



RESOURCES FOR FITTING A T5 TRANSMISSION IN A 240
If you're looking for more info on fitting a T5 transmission into a 240 or other Volvo, here are some good places to start looking:
Aaron Reed Baker's T5 installation page: http://www.aaronreedbaker.com/t5swap.html
Smoothdurban's thread beginning on page 2 (post #91): http://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=292243&page=2
 https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=3620
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=23541
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=23646
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=23284
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=18952
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=17614
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=17283
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=16921
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=15408
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=16019
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=11183
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=37552
1800philes.com T5 installation 2007

A few parts that you may need to collect.
Clutch Pilot Bearing: Standard Ford Mustang 5.0 type. Ford Performance Parts M-7600-A, Dorman 14677. I.D.: 0.672 inch. O.D.: 1.378 inch.


Tremec 5-Speed Transmissions


PHOTO: T5 versus TKX Dimensions (FORD versions)

The T5 transmission is not as strong as a Tremec TK series. The WC T5 I chose had an advertised limit of about 300-330 ft. lbs of torque. These limits have been acceptable for most 4 cylinder Volvos. Over the years, some makers of Volvo transmission adapters (such an BNE) have begun offering versions to use a stronger Tremec TK series 5 speed, just in case the normal T5 isn't durable enough. And in 2021 Tremec introduced an all new TKX 5 speed transmission, which is now the replacement for the TKO, which had been around for many years. Of course these stronger transmissions are more expensive.

The new TKX 5 speed transmission is a completely new design and it looks nothing like the T5 or the old TKO, but it shares the same overall length and uses the same bell housing mounting dimensions as the TKO. So it can be used for our Volvos with an available adapter. The major differences in the TKX include a slimmer design (for easier fit in tight transmission tunnels), more options for gear ratios, more options for shifter placement, a torque rating of 600 ft. lbs., a higher 8000 rpm limit with shifting available to 7500 rpm, and it has both electric and cable speedo outputs.

The cross member mounting points are in a slightly different position (about 0.8 inch higher and about 1 inch further back). The TKX transmission weighs more than 20 lbs. heavier than a T5 (about 98 lbs. versus 75 lbs.). 


Input Shaft: If you were to swap from a T5 to a TKX or if you're doing a first-time conversion to a 240, but want to use a TKX instead of a T5, there are a few things to keep in mind.
The Ford T5 used most in the T5 swap will generally have a 10 spine input shaft (1.0625 inch diameter). It appears a 10 spline input shaft version of the TKX is available (same 1.0625 inch diameter), but checking on-line I found it listed out of stock or special order only, so there may be a wait. And from what I've read, the 26 spine input shaft versions should be stronger, since more splines is generally considered stronger, plus the 26 spine shaft is larger (1.125 inch diameter). You can use this info in case going with a 26 spline input shaft is an option for you. A 26 spline version will require a different clutch disk.

Output Shaft: The Ford T5 came with a 28 spline output shaft. A T5 slip yoke uses a 1330 series U-joint. The TKX has a 31 spline output shaft. So a different slip yoke is needed. A
1330 series U-joint slip yoke is available for the TKX. A 1330 series U-joint measures 3.625 inches wide. The bearing caps are 1.0625 inch diameter.

TREMEC TKX GEAR RATIO OPTIONS

 
A Guide To Tremec Manual Transmissions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOGFOkP_lUY





 The T5 transmission can be installed in a 240 with a one-piece or two-piece driveshaft.  For this installation I chose a two-piece.  It's the bottom one in this photo. This required a driveline shop to custom build the front half, which was mated to an unmodified rear half.  The top driveshaft shown above is the stock 240 driveshaft.

The slip yoke on the new driveshaft above is a standard T5 type, which uses a 1330 series U-joint. The normal Volvo front U-joint is a 1310 series, so the driveshaft shop installed a combination U-joint 1310 to 1330.


 
A Hurst performance short-throw shifter was added when I installed the T5. The Hurst chromed shifter stick is detailed below.
My setup began with the original cable style clutch and pedal, but I later changed that to a hydraulic clutch setup after stretching and breaking a couple clutch cables.
More info about hydraulic clutch setups can be found in my
Hydraulic Clutch Page.



 

  I began with this chromed Hurst 8550 shifter stick.
The knob position was originally a little tall for my comfort, so I cut off about an inch off of the bottom.
The holes I'm using are shown in this photo of the modified shifter. I'm using the BOTTOM hole (which was originally the top hole) and the third hole from the bottom, which I drilled. The other holes are not being used.  The final shifter position is now perfect in my opinion. It's comfortable and and easy to reach any gear without any strain.


 

This is a rubber bushing from Hurst. PN 1140015.  It helps the flat shifter handle fit nicely in the round hole of the Volvo rubber shift boot.

 
HURST, baby!



 
I added some new taillights in 2007.  I've been asked where these taillights came from.  They started as ALL CLEAR taillights I found on eBay.  Then I bought some transparent red spray paint from the model section in a hobby store.
More detailed info on painting tail lamps can be for HERE.

That rear spoiler is a very rare Volvo 240 accessory made by Zender in the 1980's.



This part may shock some 240 purists  . . . . 
I don't prefer the traditional humped  "coffin" hood that originally came on U.S. 240 models.  Some people do.  I just don't.

 
 

So in 2010 this car received a flat hood and matching flat grill.


FLAT HOOD TRIVIA

For those that don't know, that
flat hood used above is the same hood used for the rare 1983 242 Turbo "Flathood" model (pictured below). This limited 242 Turbo model is outlined in the following pages.
http://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=66501
http://flathood.saliv8.com/
https://silodrome.com/volvo-242-group-a-homologation-flathood/
https://www.hemmings.com/stories/2020/08/07/homologation-rarity-1983-volvo-240-turbo-flat-hood-to-be-auctioned-at-bonhams-quail-motorcar-auction
 
This is almost the SAME hood used on 1975-1977 U.S. 242, 244 and 245 models and on 1978-1980 242 DL and GT.
The newer raised "hump" hood was not introduced until 1978 (except for the 264, which got the raised hood in 1975).
 

Early flat hood 240s got some thin metal trim attached to the front leading edge of the hood to match thin metal trim around the turn signals.
One year (1976, shown above) had a single windshield washer squirter instead of two squirters on other years.



The hood latch on the flat hood is unique to accommodate the shorter front. The latch release handle, latch pin and spring are all shorter.
Also the hinge springs have less tension for a flat hood (hinges are otherwise the same). Flat hoods used lighter springs because the flat hood is lighter. So get these parts if you find a salvage yard flat hood you want to pull.



More Flat Hood Trivia

There's also ONE certain way to tell an early flat hood (1975-80) from a later flat hood (1983).  Look for the dip in the hood bracing. The early hood will have one dip and the later hood will have TWO dips.




ALSO the flat hood above is the same hood used on European 240 Turbos (beginning in 1981), including those that were used in racing, like this one above.
The European 240 front end for 1981-85 came with different headlights, fenders and turn signals as pictured above. These fenders above are the same fenders that later appeared on U.S. versions for 1986-93.
A different grill was used in Europe for the Turbo.  And the slightly different sheet-metal directly BELOW the grill and headlights (part #13 in below diagram) was used to accommodate those different European parts. That #13 part below is the same part used later on U.S. 240's beginning in 1986. Yes, it can get confusing. I have more info in my 240 Headlight Page.

Another view BELOW of the different sheet metal piece directly below the headlights and grill. The difference looks small, but there is a difference.



ENGINE
The engine in my 240 Turbo is still the original B21FT, but a few added features have crept in over the years. 
The original K-Jet fuel injection served me well for years, but it has limits if you want more performance.
I'm now using SDS EFI programma
ble fuel injection and programmable ignition. More info on my SDS EFI installation HERE.
SDS EFI is in Canada and they may be found at: http://www.sdsefi.com.
 
 
I installed a Mitsubishi TD04HL 15G turbo (which I pulled from an 850R Turbo in a salvage yard).
The 15G is mounted on a later (1990+) exhaust manifold. A turbo like this is much more responsive on a small engine with low compression like the B21FT (which has a compression ratio of only 7.5:1).
The original Garrett T3 turbo was much slower to respond.

Adapting a Mitsubishi turbo is not overly difficult and there's good basic info here:
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=359871
https://forums.turbobricks.com/showthread.php?t=83929



For comparison, here's an old pic of the original Garrett T3 turbo.




3 INCH EXHAUST

If you're interested in how my 3 inch exhaust system was made, I've created a 240 Exhaust Page with those details.



Later I decided to go old-school on the front grill and lights. I changed it to these round headlights from a 1980 or earlier 242.
If you want more info about different headlights used on the 240 over the years, I have lots of that info in my Headlight Page: https://www.240turbo.com/headlight.html.

In November 2010 I took the 242 on a road trip to the annual Arizona Volvo Day in Tucson, Arizona (above photo).  It was awarded first place in the rear wheel drive class. 
I have photo albums for a large number of Volvo meets going back many years.
Click HERE: Volvo Meet Photo Album Page.



 
 I added these "GT style" driving lights in the grill in 2011. No, those are NOT standard 242 GT fog lights. Those are larger 100 watt off-road driving lights. They're larger top to bottom than 242 GT fog lights, so to make room, I carefully enlarged the fog light buckets from a GT grill and fitted the larger off-road lamps. They light up the night like the sun!  That's very useful on long, dark roads when on long road-trips.  
 

In 2012 I decided it was time for some different wheels
By 2012 the Eikers had been used on this car for 8 years. They're very nice wheels and I still like them, but when I originally bought them there were almost no other Volvos with them.  After a few years, they became very popular and a lot of 240s had them, so I wanted a change to something else I wouldn't see on so many other 240s at every Volvo meet I attended. I have always loved the look of BBS style mesh wheels, so I thought of looking for that style instead.

 

These wheels are NOT BBS, but they look nice on my car. I found them on eBay. The size is 17 x 7.5, same size as the Eikers, but these wheels have a BMW bolt pattern.
BMW bolt pattern: 5 x 120 mm, with 72.56 mm hub center bore. These wheels have a
35 mm offset.
Standard Volvo bolt pattern (240, 700, 800, 900): 5 x 108 mm, with 65.1 mm hub center bore.
I had some hub-centric billet adapters custom made by http://www.motorsport-tech.comMore on the adapters below.


The tires shown here are 235/40-17 Goodyear Eagle F1.  If you fit a tire this wide on the rear of a lowered 240, you WILL absolutely be trimming or pounding some of the inner rear fender metal to make more room.  The back half of the rear arch will rub on a wide tire on bumps. If the car is lowered, it'll rub even more on bumps.  I have created an article in my 240 Mods Page on how I made clearance for these tires on my 240:
HERE: https://www.240turbo.com/volvo240mods.html#rearwheelclearance



 
WHY DID I CHOOSE A BMW BOLT PATTERN?

The reason I decided on a BMW bolt pattern with custom adapters is because there are MANY more wheel styles to choose from for a BMW bolt pattern than for a Volvo 240. So shopping for something I liked was easier. 

Nowadays adapting non-Volvo wheels can sometimes also be done by using custom re-drilled front 240 hubs instead of adapters. This option is offered at https://www.bneshop.com/. Re-drilling a 240 hub from original 5 x 108 mm is limited to certain bolt patterns due to the size of the Volvo hub. A BMW bolt pattern of 5 x 120 mm is too large to be drilled into a 240 front hub.

These 17 x 7.5 wheels have a 35 mm offset.  I chose 20 mm thick adapters in front and 40 mm thick in back. The 20 mm adapter in front put the wheels in a good position between the strut housing and fender. Adding 40 mm adapters in the back pushed the wheels out MORE toward the outer fender. These specs worked nicely for me, considering the rear inner fender sheet metal work I had already done: https://www.240turbo.com/volvo240mods.html#rearwheelclearance.
 

WHEEL ADAPTERS

Most custom wheel adapter makers will tell you their minimum recommended adapter thickness is somewhere between 20 and 30 mm. Motorsport-tech.com told me their minimum thickness is usually 19-20 mm. The wheels you choose will need the right offset to compensate for your adapter thickness and wheel offset.  Also keep in mind that a wider front wheel/tire may also get closer to the front strut tube on the inside, so your wheel offset calculations should be compensated for that clearance too.  The best place to begin is carefully measuring all these clearances with your existing wheels first. Then plan carefully.
 
I put some more info together on calculating wheel offset for a Volvo 240 here: https://www.240turbo.com/volvo240mods.html#wheeloffset

FRONT ADAPTER

Here's a pic of the front 20 mm thick adapter/spacer bolted in place.


<<< In 2019 I changed tire size to 225/45-17, since I could no longer find the previous 235/40-17 size in a tire I liked. The new tires are Dunlop SP Sport 01, a more aggressive high performance summer tire with a stickier rubber compound. They had great reviews and I have always been very happy with Dunlop performance tires in past years.These tires grip exceptionally well on dry pavement, however these tires are not all that well rated in heavy rain.



WHAT DID I DO FOR A SPARE TIRE?
I kept the original Volvo spare for a number of years after installing the BMW bolt pattern wheels. I began thinking that if I actually had to USE that Volvo spare, I would have to remove a wheel adapter first.  So I decided to look for a spare with a BMW bolt pattern.

I wanted a wheel larger than 15 inches, closer to 17 inches if possible (like my current wheels), because I wanted it to clear my larger front brakes if at all possible (and IT DOES). I wanted the spare tire diameter to be fairly close, if possible, to the same diameter as the 225/45-17 tires I have (24.9 inches tall).  And the spare tire would ultimately need to be narrow enough to fit inside the spare tire well in the trunk. Plus I really wanted a NORMAL tire, not a space-saver temporary spare. And it needed to be inexpensive.


It wasn't easy finding a wheel I liked, since many BMW wheels are much wider than I wanted (many are 8 to 10 inches).  I would have preferred a 17 inch wheel with a 6 or 6.5 inch width. I found a couple, but then I searched for an appropriate 17 inch tire. I could NOT find at tire I liked in 17 inches. I discovered it's hard to find a 17 inch tire narrow enough to fit a 6.5 inch wheel, yet tall enough to be close to 24.9 inches. Try searching. 17 inch sizes seem to begin at 195/50 and stay in low profiles, unless you want a really tall space saver.  

While searching for wheels, I found lots of USED space-saver spares on eBay. Those all seemed to have a 3.5 or 4 inch width.  That is too narrow for me.  Plus have you seen how damned expensive used BMW space-savers are on eBay??? They think they're gold plated.
 
Finally I found this new steel wheel on eBay (pictured below). It was $80. Sold by https://www.motorcitycustoms.com
It's a steel wheel, SIZE: 16 x 6.5 inches (5x120, 72.56 mm center) with an ET (offset) of +32 mm.
Listed as Part Number X-50610R. 

Then I found the below Federal tire in size 175/60-16. It was all just barely narrow enough to fit nicely in the spare tire well.

If you need a 16 inch BMW wheel for a spare like this, I have one extra available CHEAP in my Used Parts Page:
https://www.prancingmoose.com/usedvolvoparts.html

Here are some photos of the wheel and tire I used for my spare.
          



What else is in the trunk?
For those long cross-country trips, in addition to a pretty heavy tool bag, I keep a small, lightweight aluminum jack from Harbor Freight in my trunk. It's strapped down using eye-brackets bolted to the floor just behind the rear seat. 
Lightweight 33 lb.
Harbor Freight Jack: https://www.harborfreight.com/15-ton...ack-64545.html


240 Custom AIR CONDITIONING
 
  In 2017 I completed a HUGE conversion of the AC, using a complete new in-dash system from Classic Auto Air. 
  Sounds pretty drastic.  It was, but it's working so much better than the old AC ever did before.


If you're curious about the hood vents, they were originally from a 1987 Ford Sierra RS 500 Cosworth from the United Kingdom. They were rare and expensive 15 years ago. Even more rare and expensive now. They function very well getting hot air out of the engine bay and they look nice and at home on the Volvo hood.
 
The Sierra Cosworth used these same vents (below), although this car used them a bit further forward on the hood.
\
 


 
In 2018 I got out my tools and completed a detailed build project to make this DASH TOP GAUGE POD similar to the ultra-rare accessory gauge pod offered by Volvo in the 1980s. 
This project was a lot of fun and it has it's own project page, which ca
n be found at: https://www.240turbo.com/dashgaugepod.html


SUSPENSION
My car has front coil-overs with 2.5 inch springs and rear adjustable coils with 5 inch springs. The front strut setup was made many years ago my a company that no longer exists, but if this interests you, you can find these and lots of other 240 performance suspension parts at BNE Dynamics.
More info about coil-overs and performance 240 suspensions can be found in my 240 Suspension Page.
See my 240 SUSPENSION PAGE.
 

- 240 SUSPENSION PAGE Click Here -

BRAKES
240 factory disc brakes were considered better than many other cars when they were developed in the 1970's, but improving on that performance was a necessary thing in my opinion.
My 240 BIG BRAKE PAGE will illustrate things than can be done to any 240 to make your brakes better.

The front brake upgrade I chose for my 242 was the below Wilwood 4-piston calipers and 12.2 inch rotors.  These aren't considered "huge" brakes, but they do fit well behind my 17 inch wheels (and even in my 16 inch spare wheel).


More recent pics.





Here's an under hood shot. 

There's a lot going on under my hood, but it's pretty reliable and keeps my car going as it needs to. That's a big custom Griffin aluminum radiator with a Lincoln Mark VIII fan.  I have more info on this cooling system installation and past cooling system projects here: 240turbo.com/ElectricCoolingFans.html



240 Hood Insulation: I've begun compiling some info for DIY hood insulation projects: CLICK HERE.



SDS EFI ENGINE MANAGEMENT:

I've been using SDS EFI to control fuel and spark for more than 20 years.  It's fully programmable for both fuel injection and ignition.
Before converting this car to EFI, I used SDS EFI in my old 245 Turbo for many years beginning back in 1999.  I get occasional grief from Megasquirt users who think SDS deserves no respect.  Maybe Megasquirt is newer and better. It has more stuff, more options, probably more potential.  While Megasquirt does offer more peripheral options,
I've never had an SDS related issue or failure in either 240s I used SDS in for over 20 years. I DON'T know many Megasquirt users who can say that.
  I'm not a Megasquirt hater at all. It just didn't happen to exist yet when I began using SDS and so far I just have never used Megasquirt on a project. I may try it someday if I get sufficiently motivated.

 
SDS uses a proprietary Hall sensor for crank position sensing. Since installing this on a Volvo engine was pretty much custom, I needed to make a bracket (BELOW) to hold the sensor. The Hall sensor then reads a pair of small magnets (ABOVE), which were supplied by SDS. The magnets were embedded into my crank pulley. It can be as simple as drilling a couple holes and gluing them in, but for the B21 pulley I used, I felt the magnets needed a bit more material to hold onto, so I had a shop weld on two pads as shown above.
 

The Hall sensor bracket was a simple thing to create using a piece of 1/4 inch aluminum angle stock, which I added slots to so it could bolt onto two oil pan bolts and still be adjustable.  I also added an extra layer of aluminum to the front, since it needed to come out toward the pulley a little more. The result was a bracket that is rigid and fully adjustable and I could set to space the Hall sensor the correct distance from the pulley magnets.

 

Here are views of the bracket installed. As seen in the last photo above is two short spacers, which space the bracket downward from the oil pan about 1/4 inch so it clears the oil pan lip.



SDS EFI uses a programmer as shown below to set parameters. No Laptop or tablet is used.
There are some videos below that will show how the programmer works.
Programmer Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlhgz_vVMuM
Programmer Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2iBNlYUAf9M&t=7s
Hall Sensors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0eCX2AcM9w
SDS EFI YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/rv6ejguy/videos



-  P  A  S  T      V  O  L  V  O  S  -


245ti-1997-002.jpg
Humble 245 beginnings.....  This was my first 240 Turbo.  I bought this 1984 245 Turbo back in March of 1997.  I paid $3200 to who I think was the second owner in Rialto, California.  It was completely stock and original.  When I started to do a few little modifications, I really had no idea the direction it would eventually take.  This was my first 240 Turbo, so I found myself in a strange new world when it came to understand things like K-Jetronic fuel injection.  I had no clue what made it tick, but I was learning.

By 1997 when I bought this 245, I had already been a customer of iPd for a number of years. They were the best source (often the only source) for Volvo performance improvement parts.  So mods started getting done slowly as I could manage.
     

245-083004-003-med.jpg
 I wanted to modify it. It was not fast enough.  But this Volvo was my daily driver, so as many of you know, there are limits to the kinds of mods you can do to a car that needs to get you to work in the morning. 
For those of you who were into modifying Volvos in the 90s, you'll remember there were not many sources for performance parts.  I was no stranger to hot-rodding, having previously owned a 66 Chevelle
(my very first car), which began as a bone stock 2-door Malibu with a 283 2-barrel and Powerglide. It eventually got a 400 plus HP 350 engine, a B&M racing TH-400 transmission and a custom narrowed Mopar rear end. I chose the Mopar rear end because the hard shifts of that B&M transmission kept breaking Chevy rear end spider gears.


 
 

For my second car a friend talked me into buying this 1967 BMW 1600ti Alpina. It was the first year that Alpina built such a car. This one was a former German Group 3 race car, which was later imported to the U.S. I bought it in 1978.
This Alpina came with box fender flares ("pig cheeks"), racing suspension (with Konis), roll-cage and a 2 liter racing motor with dual Weber 45 DCOE carbs. 160 BHP in a car that weighed around 2200 lbs. The car was a handful. It had a 4.37:1 rear gear ratio with a 4 speed and it handled like a go-cart. More about this car be seen HERE: https://www.240turbo.com/volvo240.html#alpina

 
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